Nomina

The following is a listing of the scientific names (nomina, singular nomen) of fossil taxa that have been proposed over the history of human origins studies going back to Linnaeus (1758). The listing aims to be comprehensive and contains over 200 nomina. Currently, taxonomists recognize one extant taxon, Homo sapiens, and another 25-30 fossil taxa as valid. The remaining names in this list were not properly proposed, and thus unavailable for nomenclature, or names that were properly proposed but that are no longer considered valid. 

The names are presented as they were first published. In practice, these names may appear differently in modern usage depending on the taxonomic opinions of various authors. For example, the nomen Zinjanthropus boisei Leakey, 1959 is listed under this name as it was first published, but modern publications would now give the name as Paranthropus boisei (Leakey, 1959) or perhaps as Australopithecus boisei (Leakey, 1959), because there is near consensus among paleoanthropologists that Zinjanthropus is a subjective junior synonym to Paranthropus (or Australopithecus). 

Each nomen is listed with its type specimen (if a species) or its type taxon (if a genus), its nomenclatural status under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), and the citation for the publication containing the nomenclatural act that establishes the name.

The nomenclatural status is given as "Unavailable" if the nomen does not meet the relevant criteria under the ICZN for available names
It is given as " Invalid" if it is available but is objectively invalid, e.g. a junior homonym or an objective junior synonym.
It is given as "Suppressed" if the name has been affected by an opinion or action of the ICZN to suppress a name that would otherwise have priority (e.g. Meganthropus africanus Weinert, 1950)
It is given as "Potentially valid" if it does not fall under any of the other categories and is thus potentially available as a valid name.

The default listing presents a searchable table of all nomina. Further details, including extended comments, can be found by following the link to the nomen's full page. The alphabetical tab provides the same view as the default index listing with some additional details, and the listing by site and type groups the names geographically according to their type locality. 

Further details on the methods for compiling this list and its uses can be found in Reed et al. (2022).

References Cited

Linnaeus, C, 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae: secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus 1. Iditio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae.

Reed, D, et al., 2022. Hominin nomenclature and the importance of information systems for managing complexity in paleoanthropology. Journal of Human Evolution. 175, 103308, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2022.103308


API Usage

The nomina listing is also accessible through an API at https://paleocore.org/origins/api/nomina/, which facilitates bringing the data directly into analytical platforms such as R or Jupyter Notebooks.

In Jupyter notebooks for example,
import pandas as pd
nomina_df = pd.read_json('https://paleocore.org/origins/api/nomina/')

Or in R,
library(“jsonlite”)
nomina_df <- as.data.frame(fromJSON("https://paleocore.org/origins/api/nomina/"))


Scientific Name Year Taxonomic Rank Type Specimen/Species Status Remark
1 Afaranthropus Bonde, 2012 2012 Genus Homo antiquus Potentially valid  
2 Africanthropus Dryer, 1935 1935 Genus Homo (Africanthropus) helmei Potentially valid  
3 Africanthropus Weinert, 1938 1938 Genus Palaeoanthropus njarasensis Invalid Homonym
4 Anthropopithecus Blainville, 1838 1838 Genus Anthropopithecus troglodytes Invalid Homonym
5 Anthropopithecus erectus Dubois, 1892 1892 Species Holotype: Trinil 2
Potentially valid  
6 Anthropus Boyd-Dawkins, 1926 1926 Genus Homo neanderthalensis Invalid Objective synonym
7 Anthropus Weinert, 1937 1937 Genus Homo heidelbergensis Invalid Homonym
8 Archanthropus Arldt, 1915 1915 Genus Homo neanderthalensis Invalid Objective synonym
9 Archanthropus Abel, 1920 1920 Genus Archanthropus primigenius Invalid Homonym
10 Archanthropus primigenius Abel, 1920 1920 Species Holotype: La Chapelle-aux-Saints
Invalid Objective synonym
11 Ardipithecus White, Suwa & Asfaw, 1995 1995 Genus Australopithecus ramidus Potentially valid  
12 Ardipithecus kadabba Haile-Selassie, 2004 2004 Species Holotype: ALA-VP-2/10
Potentially valid  
13 Atlanthropus Arambourg, 1954 1954 Genus Atlanthropus mauritanicus Potentially valid  
14 Atlanthropus mauritanicus Arambourg, 1954 1954 Species Lectotype: Tighennif 1
Potentially valid  
15 Australopithecus Dart, 1925 1925 Genus Australopithecus africanus Potentially valid  
16 Australopithecus afarensis Johanson, 1978 (in Hinrichsen, 1978) 1978 Species Lectotype: L.H. 4
Potentially valid  
17 Australopithecus africanus Dart, 1925 1925 Species Holotype: Taung 1
Potentially valid  
18 Australopithecus africanus aethiopicus Tobias, 1980 1980 Subspecies Lectotype: A.L. 288-1 Unavailable Conditionally proposed
19 Australopithecus africanus miodentatus Ferguson, 1987 1987 Subspecies Holotype: A.L. 266-1
Potentially valid  
20 Australopithecus africanus tanzaniensis Tobias, 1979 1979 Subspecies Laetoli - No Type Fixed
Unavailable Conditionally proposed
21 Australopithecus anamensis Leakey et al., 1995 1995 Species Holotype: KNM-KP 29281
Potentially valid  
22 Australopithecus bahrelghazali Brunet et al., 1996 1996 Species Holotype: KT 12/H1
Potentially valid  
23 Australopithecus deyiremeda Haile-Selassie et al., 2015 2015 Species Holotype: BRT-VP-3/1
Potentially valid  
24 Australopithecus garhi Asfaw et al., 1999 1999 Species Holotype: BOU-VP-12/130
Potentially valid  
25 Australopithecus prometheus Dart, 1948 1948 Species Holotype: MLD 1
Potentially valid  
26 Australopithecus ramidus White, Suwa & Asfaw, 1994 1994 Species Holotype: ARA-VP-6/1
Potentially valid  
27 Australopithecus sediba Berger et al., 2010 2010 Species Holotype: MH1
Potentially valid  
28 Australopithecus transvaalensis Broom, 1936 1936 Species Holotype: TM 1511
Potentially valid  
29 Australopithecus walkeri Ferguson, 1989 1989 Species Holotype: KNM-WT 17000
Potentially valid  
30 Cyphanthropus Pycraft, 1928 1928 Genus Homo rhodesiensis Potentially valid  
31 Eoanthropus Woodward, 1913 1913 Genus Eoanthropus dawsoni Potentially valid  
32 Eoanthropus dawsoni Woodward, 1913 1913 Species Lectotype: Piltdown - E.591
Potentially valid  
33 Euranthropus Arambourg, 1955 1955 Genus Homo heidelbergensis Unavailable Nomen nudum
34 Europanthropus Wust, 1950 1950 Genus Homo heidelbergensis Invalid Objective synonym
35 Hemanthropus von Koenigswald, 1957 1957 Genus Hemanthropus peii Potentially valid  
36 Hemianthropus von Koenigswald, 1957 1957 Genus Hemanthropus peii Unavailable Homonym
37 Hemianthropus peii von Koenigswald, 1957 1957 Species Holotype: CA 673
Potentially valid  
38 Homo Linnaeus, 1758 1758 Genus Homo sapiens Potentially valid  
39 Homo (Africanthropus) helmei Dreyer, 1935 1936 Species Holotype: Florisbad 1
Potentially valid  
40 Homo (Javanthropus) soloensis Oppenoorth, 1932 1932 Species Holotype: Ngandong 1
Potentially valid  
41 Homo (Pithecanthropus) atlanticus Dolinar-Osole, 1956 1956 Species Lectotype: Tighennif 1
Invalid Objective synonym
42 Homo (Pithecanthropus) ternifinus Dolinar-Osole, 1956 1956 Species Lectotype: Tighennif 1
Invalid Objective synonym
43 Homo (Protanthropus) Bonarelli, 1909 1909 Subgenus Holotype: Neanderthal 1
Potentially valid  
44 Homo (Sinanthropus) erectus yuanmouensis Chengzhi, 1973 1973 Subspecies Holotype: Youanmou
Potentially valid  
45 Homo (erectus seu sapiens) palaeohungaricus Thoma, 1972 1972 Subspecies Syntype: Vertesszöllös Homo II
Potentially valid  
46 Homo acheulensis moustieri Wiegers, 1915 1915 Species Holotype: Le Moustier 1
Invalid Objective synonym
47 Homo alpinus Krause, 1909 1909 Species Holotype: Krapina 5
Invalid Homonym
48 Homo antecessor Bermúdez de Castro et al., 1997 1997 Species Holotype: ATD 6-5
Potentially valid  
49 Homo antiquus Adloff, 1908 1908 Species Holotype: Krapina 5
Invalid Objective synonym
50 Homo antiquus Ferguson, 1984 1984 Species Holotype: A.L. 288-1
Invalid Homonym
51 Homo antiquus praegens Ferguson, 1989 1989 Subspecies Holotype: KNM-TH 13150
Potentially valid  
52 Homo aurignacensis hauseri Klaatsch & Hauser 1910 Subspecies Holotype: Combe Capelle
Potentially valid  
53 Homo australoideus africanus Drennan, 1929 1929 Species Lectotype: Cape Flats
Invalid Homonym
54 Homo bodoensis Roksandic et al., 2022 2022 Species Holotype: Bodo 1
Potentially valid  
55 Homo breladensis Marett, 1911 1911 Species Holotype: Jersey 1
Potentially valid  
56 Homo calpicus Keith, 1911 1911 Species Holotype: Gibraltar 1
Potentially valid  
57 Homo capensis Broom, 1917 1917 Species Holotype: Boskop 1
Potentially valid  
58 Homo cepranensis Mallegni et al., 2003 2003 Species Holotype: 944/1 - Ceprano 1
Potentially valid  
59 Homo chapellensis Buttel-Reepen, 1911 1911 Species Holotype: La Chapelle-aux-Saints
Potentially valid  
60 Homo drennani Kleinschmidt, 1931 1931 Species Lectotype: Cape Flats
Potentially valid  
61 Homo ehringsdorfiensis Paterson, 1940 1940 Species none fixed Unavailable Nomen nudum
62 Homo erectus hexianensis Huang, 1982 1982 Subspecies Holotype: Hexian
Potentially valid  
63 Homo erectus mapaensis Kurth, 1965 1965 Subspecies Holotype: Maba 1
Unavailable Conditionally proposed
64 Homo erectus narmadensis Sonakia, 1984 1984 Subspecies Holotype: Narmada
Potentially valid  
65 Homo erectus newyorkensis Laitman and Tattersall, 2001 2001 Subspecies Holotype: Sm 3
Potentially valid  
66 Homo erectus ngandongensis Sartono, 1976 1976 Subspecies Holotype: Ngandong 1
Potentially valid  
67 Homo erectus olduvaiensis Tobias, 1968 1968 Subspecies Holotype: OH 9
Unavailable Conditionally proposed
68 Homo erectus petralonensis Murrill, 1981 1981 Subspecies Holotype: Petralona
Unavailable Conditionally proposed
69 Homo erectus trinilensis Sartono, 1976 1980 Subspecies Holotype: Trinil 2
Unavailable Conditionally proposed
70 Homo erectus wushanensis Huang et al., 1991 1991 Subspecies Holotype: CV.939.1
Potentially valid  
71 Homo ergaster Groves and Mazák, 1975 1975 Species Holotype: KNM-ER 992
Potentially valid  
72 Homo europaeus primigenius Wilser, 1898 1898 Subspecies Holotype: Neanderthal 1
Unavailable Nomen nudum
73 Homo floresiensis Brown et al., 2004 2004 Species Holotype: LB1
Potentially valid  
74 Homo florisbadensis Drennan, 1935 1935 Species Holotype: Florisbad 1
Invalid Objective synonym
75 Homo fossilis Giuffrida-Ruggeri, 1915 1915 Species Holotype: Combe Capelle
Invalid Objective synonym
76 Homo fossilis proto-aethiopicus Giuffrida-Ruggeri, 1915 1915 Subspecies Holotype: Combe Capelle
Invalid Objective synonym
77 Homo galilensis Joleaud, 1931 1931 Species Holotype: Zuttiyeh 1
Unavailable Nomen nudum
78 Homo gautengensis Curnoe, 2010 2010 Species Holotype: STW 53
Potentially valid  
79 Homo georgicus Gabounia et al., 2002 2002 Species Holotype: D 2600
Potentially valid  
80 Homo gibraltarensis Battaglia, 1924 1924 Species Holotype: Gibraltar 1
Invalid Objective synonym
81 Homo grimaldicus Hilber 1922 1922 Species Holotype: Grimaldi 1
Unavailable Nomen nudum
82 Homo grimaldii Lapouge, 1905 1905 Species Holotype: Grimaldi 1
Potentially valid  
83 Homo habilis Leakey, Tobias & Napier, 1964 1964 Species Holotype: OH 7
Potentially valid  
84 Homo heidelbergensis Schoetensack, 1908 1908 Species Holotype: Mauer 1
Potentially valid  
85 Homo heringsdorfensis Moller, 1928 1928 Species Holotype: Ehringsdorf F
Unavailable Nomen nudum
86 Homo homo var. neanderthalensis Blanc, 1961 1961 Subspecies Holotype: Leuca 1
Unavailable Nomen nudum
87 Homo javanensis primigenius Houze, 1896 1896 Species Holotype: Trinil 2
Invalid Objective synonym
88 Homo kanamensis Leakey, 1935 1935 Species Holotype: Kanam
Potentially valid  
89 Homo kenyaensis Zeitoun, 2000 2000 Species Holotype: KNM-ER 3733
Potentially valid  
90 Homo kiik-kobensis Bontch-Osmolovskii, 1941 1941 Species Holotype: Kiik-Koba 1
Potentially valid  
91 Homo larterti Pycraft, 1925 1925 Species Holotype: Cro-Magnon
Potentially valid Nomen nudum
92 Homo le mousteriensis Wiegers, 1915 1915 Species Holotype: Le Moustier 1
Unavailable Nomen nudum
93 Homo leakeyi Paterson, 1940 1940 Species Kanjera - No Type Fixed
Unavailable Nomen nudum
94 Homo leakeyi Heberer, 1963 1963 Species Holotype: OH 9
Unavailable Conditionally proposed
95 Homo longi Ji and Ni, 2021 2021 Species Holotype: HBSM2018-000018(A)
Potentially valid  
96 Homo louisleakeyi Kretzoi, 1984 1984 Species Holotype: OH 9
Potentially valid  
97 Homo luzonensis Détroit et al., 2019 2019 Species Holotype: CCH6
Potentially valid  
98 Homo marstoni Paterson, 1940 1940 Species Lectotype: Swanscombe
Unavailable Nomen nudum
99 Homo mediterraneus fossilis Behm, 1915 1915 Species Syntype: Bonn-Oberkassel 1 - D 998
Invalid Homonym
100 Homo meridionalis Giuffrida-Ruggeri, 1921 1921 Species Holotype: Combe Capelle
Invalid Objective synonym
101 Homo meridionalis proto-aethiopicus Giuffrida-Ruggeri, 1921 1921 Subspecies Holotype: Combe Capelle
Invalid Objective synonym
102 Homo microcranous Ferguson 1995 1995 Species Holotype: KNM-ER 1813
Potentially valid  
103 Homo modjokertensis von Koenigswald, 1936 1936 Species Holotype: Mojokerto 1
Potentially valid  
104 Homo mousteriensis hauseri Klaastsch & Hauser, 1909 1909 Species Holotype: Le Moustier 1
Invalid Objective synonym
105 Homo murrensis Weinert, 1936 1936 Species Holotype: Steinheim
Unavailable Conditionally proposed
106 Homo naledi Berger et al., 2015 2015 Species Holotype: DH1
Potentially valid  
107 Homo naulettensis Baudouin, 1916 1916 Species Holotype: La Naulette
Potentially valid  
108 Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864 1864 Species Holotype: Neanderthal 1
Potentially valid  
109 Homo neanderthalensis var. aniensis Sergi, 1935 1935 Subspecies Lectotype: Saccopastore 1
Potentially valid  
110 Homo neanderthalensis var. krapinensis Gorjanovic-Kramberger, 1902 1902 Species Holotype: Krapina 5
Potentially valid  
111 Homo niger Wilser, 1903 1903 Species Holotype: Grimaldi 1
Invalid Homonym
112 Homo otokensis Zeitoun, 2000 2000 Species Holotype: KNM-ER 3883
Potentially valid  
113 Homo palaeojavanicus modjokertensis Sartono, 1976 1976 Subspecies Sangiran Potentially valid  
114 Homo palaeojavanicus sangiranensis Sartono, 1976 1976 Subspecies Lectotype: Sangiran 6
Potentially valid  
115 Homo pithecanthropus Manouvrier, 1896 1896 Species Holotype: Trinil 2
Invalid Conditionally proposed
116 Homo predmostensis Absolon, 1920 1920 Species Holotype: Predmost 21
Invalid Objective synonym
117 Homo predmosti Matiegka, 1938 1938 Species Holotype: Predmost 21
Invalid Objective synonym
118 Homo primigenius Schwalbe, 1904 1904 Species Holotype: Neanderthal 1
Invalid Objective synonym
119 Homo primigenius africanus Weidenreich, 1928 1928 Species Holotype: E686
Invalid Homonym
120 Homo primigenius asiaticus Weidenreich, 1932 1932 Subspecies Holotype: Ngandong 1
Invalid Homonym
121 Homo primigenius galilaeensis Hennig, 1932 1932 Subspecies Holotype: Zuttiyeh 1
Unavailable Nomen nudum
122 Homo priscus Lapouge, 1899 1899 Species Lectotype: Chancelade
Potentially valid  
123 Homo priscus Krause, 1909 1909 Species Holotype: Spy I
Invalid Homonym
124 Homo rhodesiensis Woodward, 1921 1921 Species Holotype: E686
Potentially valid  
125 Homo saldanensis Drennan, 1955 1955 Species Holotype: SAM-PQ-EH 1
Potentially valid  
126 Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 1758 Species Lectotype: Linnaeus
Potentially valid  
127 Homo sapiens Boskop Gregory, 1921 1921 Subspecies Holotype: Boskop 1
Unavailable Nomen nudum
128 Homo sapiens altaiensis Derevianko, 2011 2011 Species Holotype: Denisova 4
Unavailable Nomen nudum
129 Homo sapiens cro-magnonensis Gregory, 1921 1921 Subspecies Lectotype: Cro-Magnon
Invalid Objective synonym
130 Homo sapiens daliensis Wu, 1981 1981 Species Holotype: Dali
Potentially valid  
131 Homo sapiens idaltu White et al., 2003 2003 Species Holotype: BOU-VP-16/1
Potentially valid  
132 Homo sapiens proto-sapiens Montandon, 1943 1943 Subspecies Lectotype: Swanscombe
Potentially valid  
133 Homo sapiens shanidarensis Senyurek, 1957 1957 Subspecies Holotype: Shanidar 7
Potentially valid  
134 Homo semiprimigenius palestinus Montandon, 1943 1943 Species Lectotype: Skhul 1
Invalid Objective synonym
135 Homo spelaeus Lapouge, 1899 1899 Species Lectotype: Cro-Magnon
Potentially valid  
136 Homo spyensis Krause, 1909 1909 Species Holotype: Spy I
Potentially valid  
137 Homo steinheimensis Berckhemer, 1936 1936 Species Holotype: Steinheim
Potentially valid  
138 Homo sungirensis Zubova, 2000 2000 Species Holotype: Sunghir 2
Potentially valid  
139 Homo swanscombensis Kennard, 1942 1942 Species Lectotype: Swanscombe
Unavailable Nomen nudum
140 Homo tirolensis Ambach et al., 1992 1994 Species Holotype: Hauslabjoch 1
Unavailable Conditionally proposed
141 Homo transprimigenius mousteriensis Forrer, 1908 1908 Species Holotype: Le Moustier 1
Potentially valid  
142 Homo trinilis Alsberg, 1922 1922 Species Holotype: Trinil 2
Invalid Objective synonym
143 Homo tsaichangensis McMenamin 2015 Species Holotype: F051911
Unavailable Improperly published
144 Homo wadjakensis Dubois, 1921 1921 Species Lectotype: Wajak 1
Potentially valid  
145 Hylobates giganteus Bumuller, 1899 1899 Species Holotype: Trinil 2
Invalid Objective synonym
146 Hylobates gigas Krause, 1909 1909 Species Holotype: Trinil 2
Invalid Objective synonym
147 Javanthropus Oppenoorth, 1932 1932 Subgenus Homo (Javanthropus) soloensis Potentially valid  
148 Kenyanthropus Leakey et al., 2001 2001 Genus Kenyanthropus platyops Potentially valid  
149 Kenyanthropus platyops Leakey et al., 2001 2001 Species Holotype: KNM-WT 40000
Potentially valid  
150 Maueranthropus Montandon, 1943 1943 Genus Homo heidelbergensis Invalid Objective synonym
151 Meganthropus von Koenigswald (in Weidenreich, 1945) 1944 Genus Meganthropus palaeojavanicus Potentially valid  
152 Meganthropus africanus Weinert, 1950 1950 Species Holotype: Garusi I
Suppressed  
153 Meganthropus palaeojavanicus von Koenigswald, 1944 (in Weidenreich, 1944) 1944 Species Lectotype: Sangiran 6
Potentially valid  
154 Metanthropus Sollas, 1933 1933 Genus None fixed Unavailable Lacks type specimen or species
155 Nipponanthropus Hasebe, 1948 1948 Genus Nipponanthropus akashiensis Potentially valid  
156 Nipponanthropus akashiensis Hasebe, 1948 1948 Species Holotype: Nishiyagi 1
Potentially valid  
157 Notanthropus Sergi, 1911 1911 Genus Notanthropus eurafricanus Potentially valid  
158 Notanthropus eurafricanus Sergi, 1911 1911 Species None fixed Potentially valid  
159 Notanthropus eurafricanus archaicus Sergi, 1911 1911 Species Holotype: Predmost 21
Potentially valid  
160 Notanthropus eurafricanus recens Sergi, 1911 1911 Species Holotype: Combe Capelle
Invalid Objective synonym
161 Orrorin Senut et al., 2001 2001 Genus Orrorin tugenensis Potentially valid  
162 Orrorin tugenensis Senut et al., 2001 2001 Species Holotype: BAR 1000'00
Potentially valid  
163 Palaeanthropus Bonareli, 1909 1909 Genus Homo heidelbergensis Invalid Objective synonym
164 Palaeanthropus europeus Sergi, 1910 1910 Species Holotype: Neanderthal 1
Invalid Objective synonym
165 Palaeanthropus krapiniensis Sergi, 1911 1911 Species Holotype: Krapina 5
Invalid Homonym
166 Palaeanthropus palestinensis Weidenreich, 1932 1932 Species Lectotype: Skhul 1
Invalid Objective synonym
167 Palaeanthropus palestinus McCown & Keith, 1932 1932 Species Lectotype: Skhul 1
Potentially valid  
168 Palaeoanthropus njarasensis Reck & Kohl-Larsen, 1936 1936 Species Holotype: Eyasi 1
Potentially valid  
169 Paranthropus Broom, 1938 1938 Genus Paranthropus robustus Potentially valid  
170 Paranthropus crassidens Broom, 1949 1949 Species Holotype: SK 6
Potentially valid  
171 Paranthropus robustus Broom, 1938 1938 Species Holotype: TM 1517
Potentially valid  
172 Paraustralopithecus Arambourg & Coppens 1967 1967 Genus Paraustralopithecus aethiopicus Potentially valid  
173 Paraustralopithecus aethiopicus Arambourg & Coppens, 1967 1967 Species Holotype: OMO 18-1967-18
Potentially valid  
174 Pithecanthropus Dubois, 1894 1894 Genus Pithecanthropus erectus Potentially valid  
175 Pithecanthropus alalus Haeckel, 1895 1895 Species Trinil - No Type Fixed
Unavailable Fictional
176 Pithecanthropus dubius von Koenigswald, 1949 1949 Species Holotype: Sangiran 5
Potentially valid  
177 Pithecanthropus duboisii Morselli, 1901 1901 Species Holotype: Trinil 2
Invalid Objective synonym
178 Pithecanthropus robustus Weidenreich, 1944 1944 Species Holotype: Sangiran 4
Potentially valid  
179 Pithecanthropus rudolfensis Alexeev, 1986 1986 Species Lectotype: KNM-ER 1470
Potentially valid  
180 Pithecanthropus sinensis Weinert, 1931 1931 Species Holotype: K11337:3
Invalid Objective synonym
181 Plesianthropus Broom, 1938 1938 Genus Plesianthropus transvaalensis Potentially valid  
182 Praeanthropus Hennig, 1948 1948 Genus None fixed Unavailable Nomen nudum
183 Praeanthropus Senyürek 1955 1955 Genus Praeanthropus africanus Potentially valid  
184 Praehomo Eikstedt, 1932 1932 Genus Homo heidelbergensis Invalid Objective synonym
185 Praehomo asiaticus javanensis Eickstedt, 1932 1932 Subspecies Holotype: Trinil 2
Invalid Objective synonym
186 Praehomo asiaticus sinensis Eickstedt, 1932 1932 Subspecies Holotype: K11337:3
Invalid Objective synonym
187 Praehomo europaeus Eikstedt, 1932 1932 Species Holotype: Mauer 1
Invalid Objective synonym
188 Proanthropus Wilser, 1900 1900 Genus Pithecanthropus erectus Invalid Objective synonym
189 Protanthropus Haeckel, 1895 1895 Genus Protanthropus atavus Unavailable Nomen nudum
190 Protanthropus Arldt, 1915 1915 Genus Homo heidelbergensis Invalid Objective synonym
191 Protanthropus atavus Haeckel, 1895 1895 Species Holotype: Neanderthal 1
Unavailable Nomen nudum
192 Protanthropus tabunensis Bonarelli, 1944 1944 Species Tabun - No Type Fixed
Unavailable Nomen nudum
193 Pseudhomo Ameghino, 1909 1908 Genus Homo heidelbergensis Invalid Objective synonym
194 Sahelanthropus Brunet et al., 2002 2002 Genus Sahelanthropus tchadensis Potentially valid  
195 Sahelanthropus tchadensis Brunet et al., 2002 2002 Species Holotype: TM 266-01-060-1
Potentially valid  
196 Sinanthropus Black and Zdansky 1927 Genus Sinanthropus pekinensis Potentially valid  
197 Sinanthropus (Pithecanthropus?) pekingensis Hennig, 1932 1932 Species Zhoukoudian - No Type Fixed
Invalid Homonym
198 Sinanthropus lantianensis Woo, 1965 1965 Species Holotype: PA 102, Lantian 1
Potentially valid  
199 Sinanthropus officinalis von Koenigswald, 1952 1952 Species Holotype: CA 770
Potentially valid  
200 Sinanthropus pekinensis Black and Zdansky, 1927 1927 Species Holotype: K11337:3
Potentially valid  
201 Tchadensis uxoris Coppens, 1965 1965 Species Holotype: KT Yayo
Unavailable Conditionally proposed
202 Telanthropus Broom and Robinson 1949 1949 Genus Telanthropus capensis Potentially valid  
203 Telanthropus capensis Broom and Robinson, 1949 1949 Species Holotype: SK 15
Potentially valid  
204 Zinjanthropus Leakey, 1959 1959 Genus Zinjanthropus boisei Potentially valid  
205 Zinjanthropus boisei Leakey, 1959 1959 Species Holotype: OH 5
Potentially valid  
206 lothagamensis Bonde & Westergaard, 2004 2004 Species Holotype: KNM-LT 329
Unavailable Improperly formed
Afaranthropus Bonde, 2012
Details
Year: 2012
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: A.L. 288-1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Bonde (2012) proposed a new genus, Afaranthropus with Homo antiquus Ferguson, 1984 as the type species. Homo antiquus is based on A.L. 288-1 as the type specimen. Homo antiquus is available but invalid because the name is pre-occupied by Homo antiquus Adloff, 1908. Article 67.2 of the Code indicates that a nominal species may be used as a type species for a genus if it is "cited in the original publication by an available name." Homo antiquus is so cited and available, thus Afaranthropus is potentially valid.

Authorship Reference
N. Bonde
Hominid Diversity and `Ancestor' Myths
Schilhab, T., Stjernfelt, F., Deacon, T. (Eds.) Biosemiotics, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2012
https://doi.org/10.1007%2F978-94-007-2336-8_9
Africanthropus Dryer, 1935
Details
Year: 1935
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: Florisbad 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Dryer (1935) established the sub-genus, Africanthopus as Homo (Africanthropus) helmei, with the Florisbad skull as the holotype. Campbell (1965) recognizes the genus as available, as does Groves (1989) who treats it as a subjective junior synonym to Homo. Keith (1938) provides an early description of the Florisbad specimen. Bruner and Lombard (2020) provide and updated review of the morphology and phylogenetic interpretations.

Africanthropus Weinert, 1938
Details
Year: 1938
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: Eyasi 1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Homonym
Remarks

Reck & Kohl-Larsen (1936) established the name Paleoanthropus njarasensis for the Eyasi 1 specimen. Weinert (1938) proposed moving the species to a new genus as Africanthropus njarasensis (Reck & Kohl-Larsen, 1936) Wienert, 1938. However, the latter genus is a junior homonym to Homo (Africanthropus) helmei Dryer, 1935 established for the Florisbad skull. Africanthropus Wienert, 1938 is therefore available but objectively invalid.

 

Authorship Reference
Anthropopithecus Blainville, 1838
Details
Year: 1838
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
No type specimen details available.
Status: Invalid
Remark: Homonym
Remarks

Blainville (1838) established Anthropopithecus troglodytes, in reference to chimpanzees.

Brinton (1885) uses the name "anthropopithecus" in reference to ape-man and in contrast to "anthropus" for man. Brinton uses the name informally and not as a proposal for a new taxon.

Dubois (1892) used the genus name Anthropopithecus in a quarterly field report describing the initial finds from Trinil, and especially the partial cranium (calotte) referred to as Trinil 2 or "Skull 1". Dubois (1894) subsequently moved erectus to the genus Pithecanthropus.

Campbell (1965) noted that Anthropopithecus is an objective junior synonym for Pan Oken, 1816, as determined by a decision of the ICZN in case 1368 (Tubbs, 1985). The genus name is therefore available but objectively invalid.

 

Anthropopithecus erectus Dubois, 1892
Details
Year: 1892
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Trinil 2
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Brinton (1885) uses the name "anthropopithecus" in reference to ape-man and in contrast to "anthropus" for man. Brinton uses the name informally and not as a proposal for a new taxon.

Dubois (1892) in a quarterly field report describes the discovery of a femur, and in that same report introduces the name Anthropopithecus erectus specifically for the partial cranium (calotte) referred to as Trinil 2 or "Skull 1".

Campbell (1965) lists the name as potentially valid and notes that the genus name Anthropopithecus was established by Blainville (1838) for the chimpanzee as Anthropopithecus troglodytes, but Anthropopithecus is an objective junior synonym for Pan Oken, 1816. Dubois (1894) subsequently moved erectus to the genus Pithecanthropus.

Meikle and Parker (1994) provide a full translation of Dubois's (1892) report.

Pithecanthropus erectus is widely considered a subjective junior synonym of Homo erectus (LeGros Clark, 1964; Groves, 1989; Maclatchey et al. 2010). The latter name, and thus the species epithet, 'erectus', is widely used today and generally considered valid.

See reviews by Rightmire (1981), Leonard (1997), Anton (2003) for opinions about the hypodigm for the taxon.

 

Authorship Reference
E. Dubois
Palaeontologische onderzoekingen op Java
Verslag van het Mijnwezen (May be published in 1893), 3, 10-14, 1892
Anthropus Boyd-Dawkins, 1926
Details
Year: 1926
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: Neanderthal 1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Boyd-Dawkins (1926) proposed Anthropus with Homo neanderthalensis as the type species. Campbell (1965) and Groves (1989) both list Anthropous neanderthalensis (King, 1864) Boyd-Dawkins, 1926 as an available, objective junior synonym of Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864.

Anthropus Weinert, 1937
Details
Year: 1937
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: Mauer 1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Homonym
Remarks

Weinert (1937, p.112) established Anthropus to accommodate the Mauer mandible as Anthropus heidelbergensis (Shoetensack, 1908) Weinert, 1937. However, Anthropus Wienert, 1937 is a junior homonym to Anthropus neanderthalensis Boyd-Dawkins, 1926. The name is therefore available but objectively invalid.

Authorship Reference
Archanthropus Arldt, 1915
Details
Year: 1915
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: Neanderthal 1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Arldt (1915) established the genus Archanthropus in reference to neanderthals (see below). The genus is an objective junior synonym of Homo neanderthalensis (King, 1864).

Arldt (1915, p. 46) writes, 

"Damit haben wir die in der lebenden Menschenwelt noch vertretenen Entwickelungsstuffen erledigt. Die Leukodermen gruppieren sich in ihren altesten Formen hauptsachlich um Vorderindien, Westasien und Europa, die Malanodermen um Africa, die Xanthodermen um Ostasien und in den altesten Formen um Hinterindien bzw. den ostindischen Archipel. In den entsprechenden Gegenden mussten wir auch am ehesten Angehorige dieser Stamme aus der Archanthropus-Stufe zu finden erwarten, in Euopa aber am ehesten Verwandte der Leukodermen und nachstdem der Melandodermen. Tatsachlich zeigt ja nun die diese Stufe in Europa vertretende Neandertalrasse eine besonders auffallige Aehnlichkeit mit den plattschadeligen Australiern, sodass wir sie recht wohl dem gleichen Phylum wie diese zuordnen konnen, wenn wir auch uber die Behaarung dieser Rasse leider nichts Naheres wissen. " (p. 46)

Loosely translated this passage reads...

"With this we have finished the stages of development still represented in the living human world. In their oldest forms, the leukoderms are mainly grouped around the Middle East, West Asia and Europe, the malanoderms around Africa, the xanthoderms around East Asia and in the oldest forms around the rear India and the East Indian archipelago. In the corresponding areas we had to expect most likely to find members of these tribes from the Archanthropus stage, but in Europe most likely relatives of the leukoderms and then of the melandoderms. In fact, the Neanderthal breed, which represents this stage in Europe, shows a particularly striking resemblance to the flat-skulled Australians, so that we can assign them to the same phylum as these, although unfortunately we do not know anything about the hairiness of this breed." (p. 46)

Authorship Reference
Archanthropus Abel, 1920
Details
Year: 1920
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: La Chapelle-aux-Saints
Status: Invalid
Remark: Homonym
Remarks

Abel (1920) established the genus Archanthopus with the type species Archanthropus primigenius and La Chapelle-Aux-Saints as the holotype. Archanthropus is a junior homonym to Archanthropus Arldt, 1915; it is therefore available but objectively invalid.

Archanthropus primigenius Abel, 1920
Details
Year: 1920
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: La Chapelle-aux-Saints
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Abel (1920) established Archanthropus primigenius with La Chapelle-Aux-Saints as the holotype. The genus is a junior homonym to Archanthropus Arldt, 1915. The specific epithet primigenius is a secondary junior homonym to Homo javanensis primigenius Houzé, 1896 if La Chapelle and Trinil 2 are both placed in the genus Homo as is common. It is also an objective junior synonym to Homo chapellensis Buttel-Reepen, 1911, as both share the same holotype. Thus the name 'primigenius' is available but invalid.

Ardipithecus White, Suwa & Asfaw, 1995
Details
Year: 1995
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: ARA-VP-6/1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Ardipithecus ramidus was first described as Australopithecus ramidus sp. nov. in White, Suwa, and Aswfaw, 1994. A corrigendum was published in Nature by White, Suwa, and Asfaw (1995). This one-page corrigendum established the genus Ardipithecus with Australopithecus ramidus as the type species.

Ardipithecus kadabba Haile-Selassie, 2004
Details
Year: 2004
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: ALA-VP-2/10
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Haile-Selassie (2001) introduced Ardipithecus ramidus kadabba based on ALA-VP-2/10 as the holotype. Subsequently Haile-Selassie et al. (2004) added additional fossil material to the hypodigm and elevated kadabba from subspecies to species. In the process they provided an updated description and diagnosis.

Atlanthropus Arambourg, 1954
Details
Year: 1954
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Lectotype: Tighennif 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Arambourg (1954) established the genus and species Atlanthropus mauritanicus based on the mandibles recovered from Tighennif Quarry (Algeria) also known as Ternifine or Palikao. See species entry for additional details.

Authorship Reference
C. Arambourg
L'hominien fossile de Ternifine (Algérie)
Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, 239, 893-895, 1954
Atlanthropus mauritanicus Arambourg, 1954
Details
Year: 1954
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Lectotype: Tighennif 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Arambourg (1954) described two mandibles from the Tighennif Quarry (Algeria) also known as Ternifine or Palikao. In this publication he established the name Atlanthropus mauritanicus, though he does not explicitly fix either mandible as the holotype. He writes, "Toutefois l'hominien de Ternifine ne paraît rigoureusement identique, ne aux Pithécanthropes, ni au Sinanthrope; il présente, dans certains détails de son corps mandibulaire, quelques traits qui lui paraissent propres, mais qui évoquent, dans une certain mesure, une tendance vers un stade plus progressif. Pour cette raison, et en attendant de le connître plus complètement, je proposerai de désigner cet Hominien sous le nom provisoire de 'Atlanthropus mauritanicus'. " (p. 895).  Note that Article 15.1 governing the conditional assignment of names only applies to names published after 1960.

In all, there are three mandibular specimens recovered from Tighennif. Dolinar-Osole (1956) divided them into two taxa Homo (Pithecanthropus) atlanticus and Homo (Pithecanthropus) ternifinus.

Campbell (1965) listed Atlanthropus mauritanicus as available and valid. Note that the genus name is correctly spelled in the 1965 publication but missplessed as "Atlanthroprus" in the 1994 reprinting in Meikle and Taylor (p. 217).

Groves (1989) listed the species as available (p. 284) and asserted that the Ternifine 1 mandible is the type of this taxon, but offers no additional evidence for when a lectotype may have been established.

 

Authorship Reference
C. Arambourg
L'hominien fossile de Ternifine (Algérie)
Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, 239, 893-895, 1954
Australopithecus Dart, 1925
Details
Year: 1925
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: Taung 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Dart 1925 establsihed the genus Australopithecus with Au. africanus as the type species and Taung as the holotype.

Australopithecus afarensis Johanson, 1978 (in Hinrichsen, 1978)
Details
Year: 1978
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Lectotype: L.H. 4
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Johanson, White and Coppens (1978) coined the name Au. afarensis with L.H. 4 as the type and Garusi 1 as a paratype. Garusi 1 itself is a type specimen described by Weinert (1950) as Meganthropus africanus. Johanson, White and Coppens (1978) recognized Garusi 1 and the rest of the hypodigm as fitting within the genus Australopithecus, however transfering the name Meganthropus africanus to the genus Australalopithecus creates a homonym with Australpoithecus africans Dart, 1925, which prompted Johanson, White and Coppens (1978) to coin the new name Australopithecus afarensis Johanson, White and Coppens, 1978. While their paper was in press it was preempted by a scientific news announcement published by Hinrichsen (1978) in which the author announced the name Australopithecus afarensis and attributed it to Johanson alone. Day et al. (1980) argued that Hinrichsen (1978) meets the criteria for a valid nomenclatural act and thus the formal name for this taxon is Australpithecus afarensis Johanson, 1978 (in Hinrichsen, 1978). 

Hinrichsen (1978) did not name a holotype, thus the subsequent type designation by Johanson et al. (1978) is a lectotype designation.

Groves (1996) formally requested that the ICZN suppress the name Meganthropus africanus and grant priority to Australopithecus afarensis. This appeal was made in case number 2998, with comments from White et al. (1998) and approved by ICZN in 1999 as opinion number 1941. In their final opinion, the ICZN ruled that the name africanus Weinert 1950 is formally suppressed for the purposes of the Principle of Priority but not for those of the Principle of Homonymy. The same ruling also acknowledged the name afarensis, Johanson 1978 with the specimens L.H. 4 as the lectotype. Groves (1999) reviews the nomenclatural history.

Strait et al. (1997) and Strait and Grine (2004) advance a cladistic classification for the australopiths and place Australopithecus afarensis into its own genus, Praeanthropus Senyürek, 1955. 

Kimbel and Delezene (2009) review the history of Au. afarensis and include a footnote discussing its nomenclatural history. Harrison (2011) reviews the taxonomic history and nomenclature of Australopithecus afarensis in his description of new material attributed to this taxon from Laetoli. 

Authorship Reference
D. Hinrichsen
How old are our ancestors
New Scientist, 78(5), 71, 1978
Australopithecus africanus Dart, 1925
Details
Year: 1925
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Taung 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

First named by Raymond Dart in 1925 based on the Taung specimen. There is some difference of opinion regarding the authorship year. Groves (1999) refers to Australopithecus africanus Dart, 1924. The first paragraph of Dart's 1925 article in Nature indicates the Taung skull was discovered "Late in 1924" so a 1925 publication and date for the name seems apprpriate. The Nature article is dated February 1925. Zoobank lists Australopithecus africanus Dart 1925.

Australopithecus africanus aethiopicus Tobias, 1980
Details
Year: 1980
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
No type specimen details available.
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Conditionally proposed
Remarks

Tobias (1980a, 1980b) argues that the Laetoli and Hadar samples are not distinct at the species level from Australopithecus africanus and that they should be designated as two separate subspecies, for which he proposed Australopithecus africanus tanzanensis for the Laetoli sample (Tobias, 1980a) and Australopithecus africanus aethiopicus for the Hadar sample (Tobias, 1980b).

Tobias (1980b) establshed the name Australopithecus africanus aethiopicus with no holotype fixed, though in Figure 3 (p. 6) he does explictily indicate specimen A.L. 200-1a as belonging to the newly named taxon. Generally, he regards all the Hadar material as belonging to this taxon. Tobias (1980a; 1980b) also indicates that the name Au. africanus tanzaniensis is better than Au. afarensis because the former does not match the Ethiopian place name "afar" with a type from Tanzania.

In the years following the taxonomic proposals laid out in Tobias (1980b) there has been controversy regarding the availability of the name Au. africanus aethiopicus. The resolution of this controversy affects the validity of other taxonomic names proposed afterwards including Homo antiquus Ferguson, 1987 and Australopithecus aethiopicus (Arambourg and Coppens, 1968; Walker, 1986; Cela-Conde and Altaba 2002).

The abstract of Tobias (1980b) states, "Since 'A. afarensis' is tied to a Laetoli specimen as holotype, only the Laetoli specimens should be designated A. africanus afarensis (though A. africanus tanzaniensis suggested by the author in 1978 would have been a more appropriate nomen) and the Hadar fossils A. africanus aethiopicus."

Tobias (1980b p. 14) states, "If further close morphological and statistcal analysts confirms the presence of these small marks of distinction, it may be necessary to recognize and name a separate subspecies within the evolving and polytypic lineage of A. africanus. As the name afarensis would be preoccupied by the Laetoli fossils: then it would be most appropnate to suggest an alternative regional or territorial soubriquet: I propose Australopithecus africanus aethiopicus as a suitable name for this Ethiopian taxon." 

Olson (1985) argued that Australopithecus africanus aethiopicus is available, and Olson applied the name as Homo (Australopithecus) aethiopicus. The "If" at the begining of the quote from Tobias (1980b) does suggest a conditional proposal of the name. However Olson (1985) argued that the final clause of the statement and the wording in the abstract both indicate a definitive and non-conditional proposal. Furthermore, Olson (1985) noted that Tobias (1980b) did not fix a holotype. and Olson fixes A.L. 288-1 Lucy as the lectotype. 

Ferguson (1987) presents a case for two Pliocene hominid species at Hadar, Homo antiquus Ferguson, 1984 and Au. africanus miodentatus Ferguson, 1987. In naming the latter Ferguson accepts Tobias's argument that at least a portion of the Hadar material is indistinguishable at the species level from Au. africanus. Ferguson (1987) however argues that Tobias's subspecies designation of Au. africanus aethiopicus for the Hadar material is proposed conditionally and therefore unavailable.

Groves (1989) concluded that Au. africanus aethiopicus Tobias, 1980 is conditionally proposed and unavailable. Later however, Groves (1999) reverses himself, and provides an argument favoring the availability of Au. africanus aethiopicus Tobias, 1980.

Groves (1999) reverses course and agrees with Olson (1985) on the availability of Au. africanus aethiopicus. Groves (1999) discusses potential homonymy with Paraustralopithecus aethiopicus Arambourg, 1968 when that taxon is transfered to the genus Australopithecus  and then conflicts with Australopithecus africanus aethiopicus Tobias, 1980.

Harrison (2011, Table 7.1 p. 142) lists Au. africanus aethiopicus as "nomen nudum, conditionally proposed," but does not discuss the prior determinations by Olson (1985) nor Groves (1999). Harrision (2011) also notes that Homo aethiopicus is pre-occupied by Bory de Saint-Vincent (1825 p. 314).

Much hinges on the avaiability of Au. africanus aethiopicus Tobias, 1980. If the name is available, then it precludes the combination Australopithecus aethiopicus (but does not preclude the combination Paranthropus aethiopicus) for robust australopiths such as KNM WT 17000. If available it would also precede Homo antiquus Ferguson, 1984 relegating the latter to an objective junior synonym since both use A.L. 288-1 as a type. The latter (H. antiquus) is further invalid because it is a secondary junior homonym of Homo antiquus Adloff, 1908.

We agree with the determination of Harrison (2011) and Groves (1989) that the name "Australopithecus africanus aethiopicus" is conditionally proposed and unavailable.

Australopithecus africanus miodentatus Ferguson, 1987
Details
Year: 1987
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Holotype: A.L. 266-1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Ferguson (1987 p. 264) established the name Australopithecus africanus miodentatus, with A.L. 266-1 as the holotype for what he determined to be a second species of Pliocene hominid at Hadar. This nomen is available and potentially valid.

 

Australopithecus africanus tanzaniensis Tobias, 1979
Details
Year: 1979
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Laetoli - No Type Fixed
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Conditionally proposed
Remarks

Tobias (1980), at a talk delivered in 1979 and subsequently published in 1980, proposed that the Laetolil australopith fossils represent a subspcies separate from what is present in Ethiopia. He conditionally dubs the Laetoli specimens Australopithecus africanus tanzaniensis. He clearly refers to the Laetolil hominin sample but does not explicitly fix a type specimen, though this is not required for publications before 1999. Given that L.H. 4 from Laetoli is the lectotype of Australopithecus afarensis Johanson, 1978  and presuming it is in the type series considered by Tobias then Australopithecus africanus tanzaniensis Tobias, 1979 is an objective junion synonym to afarensis.

Tobias (1980) states in the abstract, 

"The published data on fossils from Laetolil are analysed and it is concluded there is insufficient morphological distance between them and Transvaal samples to exclude the Laetolil specimens from A. africanus, though some differences of dental morphology, time and space, may justify our regarding them as representative of a new subspecies A. africanus tanzaniensis." (p. 86)

and further on in the text, 

"In short, the only dental evidence that serves to differentiate the Laetolil hominids from the Transvaal A. africanus populations is that the teeth of the former are, on average, slightly bigger, while the mandibular premolars of Laetolil, though larger, are longer and narrower than those of A. africanus. These teneuous differences are insufficient evidence on which to separate the laetolil hominids from Transvaal A. africanus at the species level. There may well be a case to separate them at the subspecies level, since, aside from their small dental differences, the are 1.0 to 0.6 million years earlier than Makapansgat Member 3 and Sterfontein Member 4, and because of their geographcial distance apart. In that event, as we already have two southern african subspecies, A. africanus africanus and A. africanus transvaalensis, it would perhaps be appropropriate to refer to this Tanzanian subspecies as A. africanus tanzaniensis." (p. 107).

Groves (1989, p. 193) notes that Au. africanus tanzaniensis Tobias, 1979 lacks a type specimen, but this does not preclude its availability. Groves (1989) does not remark on the conditional nature of the proposal.

Harrison (2011) argues Tobias's proposal was conditional and that Au. africanus tanzaniensis Tobias,1979 is unavailable.

 

Authorship Reference
P. Tobias
A survey and synthesis of the African hominids of the late Tertiary and early Quaternary periods.
Current Argument on Early Man: Report from a Nobel Symposium, 86-113, 1980
Australopithecus anamensis Leakey et al., 1995
Details
Year: 1995
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: KNM-KP 29281
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Leakey et al. (1995) established Australopithecus anamensis based on the holotype KNM-KP 29281. Most of the hypodigm derives from Kanapoi localities situated about 36 deg, 04' E and 2 deg 19' N between the Kalabata and Kakurio rivers in Turkana District, northern Kenya.

Australopithecus bahrelghazali Brunet et al., 1996
Details
Year: 1996
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: KT 12/H1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Brunet et al. (1995) provided the original description of the site and fossils. Brunet et al. (1996) provided illustrations, differential diagnosis, and established the name Australopithecus bahrelghazali with specimen HT 12/H1 as the holotype. Bahr el Ghazal is classical arabic for River of the Gazelles. The holotype specimen is a mandible with R i2-p4 and Lc-p4 (Note origianl anatomical description in 1995 Nature paper Fig 2 is incorrect and ommits left p4). The locality is variably referred to as either KT 12 or KT12 (with and without a space). Paratype KT 12/H2 is an upper right P3.

Australopithecus deyiremeda Haile-Selassie et al., 2015
Details
Year: 2015
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: BRT-VP-3/1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Haile-Selassie et al.(2015) established Australopithecus deyiremeda, with the left maxiallary fragment BRT-VP-3/1 as the holotype, to accommodate Pliocene age (3.3 - 3.5 Ma) fossils discovered at Woranso-Mille in the Afar region of Ethiopia.

Haile-Selassie et al., 2015 concluded that  Au. deyiremeda shared features with Au. afarensis, Ar. ramidus, and K. platyops. Au. diyiremeda differs in having a zygomatic processes more anteriorly positioned (relative to that of Au. afarensis) and has thicker third molar enamel relative to Ar. ramidus. Haile-Selassie et al., 2015 noted that Au. deyiremeda possessed morphological similarities with P. robustus. The discovery of Au. deyiremeda strengthen the view of possible homoplasy among late Pleiocene and early Pleistocene hominins (Haile-Selassie et al., 2015). 

Australopithecus garhi Asfaw et al., 1999
Details
Year: 1999
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: BOU-VP-12/130
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Aswfaw et al. (1999) established Australopithicus garhi with BOU-VP-12/130 as the holotype.

 

Australopithecus prometheus Dart, 1948
Details
Year: 1948
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: MLD 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Dart (1948) proposed the name Australopihecus prometheus based on the MLD 1 occipital fracgement from Makapansgat as the holotype. The etymology of the name derives from Darts interpretation that the Makapansgat sediments held evidence of true hearths. For many years the name was treated as a junior synonym of Australopithecus africanus.

Campbell (1965) lists the name as valid (i.e. available)

Berger and Hawks (2019) argued that the nomen is unavailable because it is a nomen nudem and/or it is nomen dubium. Clarke (2019) rebutts this claim and argues that the nomen is available and valid. Clarke and Kuman (2019) resurected the name for the Sterkfontein skeleton recovered from the Silberberg Grotto, Stw 573.

Dart (1948) provides a limited description and differential diagnosis thus we conclude, with Clarke (2019) that the name is available and potentially valid. Further, the type specimen has not been lost and was well illustrated in the original manuscript, thus precluding the name from nomen dubium status. The name is perhaps better given as an example of a nomen vanum, a name that meets the technical conditiions of the Code but is difficult to apply in practice because the material is sparse and fragmentary.

Authorship Reference
Australopithecus ramidus White, Suwa & Asfaw, 1994
Details
Year: 1994
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: ARA-VP-6/1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Originally described as Australopithecus ramidus White, Suwa & Asfaw 1994, then updated to Ardipithecus ramidus in a one-page corrigendum in White, Suwa & Asfaw 1995. Kissel and Hawks (2015) sugget that the Tabarin mandible, KNM-TH 13150 may be part of the same hypodigm as ARA-VP-6/1 in which case the nomen Homo praegens Ferguson, 1989 or Afaranthropus praegens (Ferguson, 1989) Bonde, 2011 would have priority.

Australopithecus sediba Berger et al., 2010
Details
Year: 2010
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: MH1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Berger et al. (2010) establshed the name Australopithecus sediba, with the MH 1 partial skeleton as the holotype, to accommodate new fossil discovereis from the site of Malapa, South Africa. A paratype was designated MH2 from the same site in September of 2008. The name sediba itself comes from the local Sesotho word meaning “fountain” or “wellspring” (Berger et al., 2010). Berger and his team proposed that Au. sediba could be the immediate ancestor of the Homo genus based on the traits described above. However remains from the Drimolen cave in South Africa that have been attributed to Homo erectus and Paranthropus robustus were dated to be contemporaneous with the determined time frame of Au. sediba (Herries et al., 2020). 

Australopithecus transvaalensis Broom, 1936
Details
Year: 1936
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: TM 1511
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Broom (1936) established the name Au. transvaalensis based on TM 1511 discovered at Sterkfontein. Later (Broom, 1938) he moved the species to a new genus, Plesianthropus transvaalensis. In 1947 the nearly complete creanium STS 5 was discovered and referred to Plesianthropus transvaalensis from which it gets the knickname "Mrs Ples". 

Australopithecus walkeri Ferguson, 1989
Details
Year: 1989
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: KNM-WT 17000
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Ferguson (1989) establishes Australopithecus walkeri as a new species with specimen KNM-WT 17000 as the holotype. Ferguson (1989) argues that the holotype is not to be included in the same hypodigm as Omo-18-1967-18, the type specimen of Paraustralopithecus aethiopicus Arambourg and Coppens, 1968.

Cyphanthropus Pycraft, 1928
Details
Year: 1928
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: E686
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Pycraft (1928) provided a detailed description of E686 (Kabwe). On pp. 49-50 he proposed moving the species to a new genus, Cyphanthropus with the type species Homo rhodesiensis Woodward, 1921.

Authorship Reference
W. P. Pycraft , G. E. Smith , M. Yearsley , J. T. Carter , R. A. Smith , A. T. Hopwood , D. M. A. Bate , and W. E. Swinton
Rhodesia Man and Associated Remains
Rhodesia Man and Associated Remains, Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), London, 1928
Eoanthropus Woodward, 1913
Details
Year: 1913
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Lectotype: Piltdown - E.591
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Woodward (1921) established the genus Eoanthropus for the species Eoanthropus dawsoni based on the Piltdown specimen. See species entry for further details.

Authorship Reference
Eoanthropus dawsoni Woodward, 1913
Details
Year: 1913
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Lectotype: Piltdown - E.591
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Eoanthropus dawsoni Woodward, 1913 is the scientific name given to the temporal bone portion of the Piltdown specimen. Haddon (1913) described the announcement by Woodward of the discovery of the Piltdown partial cranium and partial mandible, and Woodward's proposal for the name Eoanthropus dawsoni. Piltdown was subsequently established to be a hoax comprised of a modern orangutan mandible and medieval Homo sapiens skull planted at the Piltdown site.

Woodward believed the mandible and skull fragments were associated. He did not fix a type specimen. Miller (1915) assigned the temporal bone (E.591) as the lectotype.

Following the revelation of the hoax, De Beer (1955) appealed to the ICZN to supress all taxonomic names associated with the Piltdown specimen on the grounds that the taxon is hypothetical and unavailable under Article 1.3.1. It is unclear whether the ICZN ever took up this proposal or acted on it.

Stringer (2012) provided a review of the Piltdown discovery and hoax.

Brandon-Jones et al. (2016) reviewed the taxonomic and nomenclatural status of the Piltdown specimens. They argued, contra De Beer (1955), that Woodward established the name based on real specimens and with the full belief that they represented real taxa. In their assessment, "The Commission cannot force a zoologist to abandon a conviction, however improbable, that all or part of the assemblage was genuine and the described taxa recognisable. Now that the remains have been re-identified, the names attached to them are available should they prove to represent recognisable taxa, such as a subspecies of orangutan." (p. 2079).

 

Authorship Reference
Euranthropus Arambourg, 1955
Details
Year: 1955
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: Mauer 1
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Nomen nudum
Remarks

Arambourg (1955) in the conclusion of this essay on problems in human origins, uses the genus name Euranthropus in reference to the Mauer mandible but offers no differential diagnosis. The name is thus nomen nudum.

Authorship Reference
Europanthropus Wust, 1950
Details
Year: 1950
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: Mauer 1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Wust (1950) in discussing the history of the Mauer mandible and related finds suggests the name Europanthropus heidelbergensis. Roughly translated from the orignal German, he states on p. 8 "On the other hand, there are several names for the same fossil specimen, from which the tribal-historical connection with the anthropus stage is supposed to be recognizable. So one speaks of 'Palaeoanthropus heidelbergensis' a designation which H. Weinert characterized variously as tautological and for his part - also based on the old age of the lower jaw and based on the other anthropus finds - the name 'Europanthrous heidelbergensis' is here proposed."

Campbell (1965) lists the genus as an objective junrior synonym of Homo heidelbergensis, and hence available but objectively invalid.

Hemanthropus von Koenigswald, 1957
Details
Year: 1957
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: CA 673
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

von Koenigswald (1957) proposes changing the name Hemianthropus, which was occupied, to Hemanthropus (without an "i"). Campbell (1965) remarks that such changes are allowed under the ICZN, however Campbell also notes that the original taxonomic description for Hemianthropus peii does not include a description or characters differentiating the genus. Von Koenigswald (1957a) does provide a very brief description with a couple traits (cusp size and crenulations) that differentiate the taxon from Pongo, but does not distinguish traits that differentiate the species and those that differentiate the genus. If we allow that one description can serve for genus and species then the name is available and potentially valid.

Authorship Reference
G. H. R. von Koenigswald
Hemanthropus ng not Hemianthropus
Proc. Koninkl. Nederl. Akademie van Wetenschappen--Amsterdam, Ser. B, 60, 416, 1957
Hemianthropus von Koenigswald, 1957
Details
Year: 1957
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: CA 673
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Homonym
Remarks

Von Koenigswald (1957a) established the genus Hemianthropus for isolated teeth recovered from Hong Kong apothocaries. Later, in a short note, von Koenigswald (1957b) indicated that the genus name as initally proposed (with an "i") is occupied by Hemianthropus Freudenberg, 1929 for the Bammental II material discovered at the site of Bammental (near Mauer), and so von Koenigswald (1957b) proposed changing the name to Hemanthropus (without an "i").

Campbell (1965) remarks that such changes are allowed under the ICZN, however the original taxonomic description lacked characters differentiating the taxon and is thus nomen nudum. The original publication does include a brief differential diagnosis and if we accept that a single diagnosis may server for the species and genus designations then the name is available.

Smith et al. (2018) concluded that the type specimen, CA 673, is likely a representative of Pongo.

Hemianthropus peii von Koenigswald, 1957
Details
Year: 1957
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: CA 673
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Von Koenigswald (1957a) established the species Hemianthropus peii for isolated teeth recovered from Hong Kong apothocaries with specimen CA 674 (as designated by Smith 2018) as the holotype. Soon after von Koeningswad was alerted to the fact that Hemianthropus is an objective junior synonyms to Hemianthropus Freudenberg, 1929 leading him to publish an erratum (von Koeningwald, 1957b) changing the genus name to Hemanthropus (without the 'i' ).

Campbell (1965) remarks that the description lacks a differential diagnosis and the genera are nomina nuda.  However von Koeningswald (1957a) included brief descriptions that differentiate the new taxa from Pongo and noted similarities with Paranthropus. Assuming a single differential diagnosis may serve for both a new species and new genus the name is available.

Groves (1989, p. 203) suggests the type specimen is Pongo.

Smith (2018) refers the holotype specimen to Pongo.

Homo Linnaeus, 1758
Details
Year: 1758
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Lectotype: Linnaeus
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Linnaeus (1758) established the genus Homo with the type species Homo sapiens.

Authorship Reference
C. Linnaeus
Systema naturae per regna tria naturae :secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis.
Systema naturae per regna tria naturae :secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. (https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/542 --- Paged continuously. --- "4me edition originale...de mème que les éditions 2 et 6."--Hulth. --- Projected v.3, Mineralia, not published; manuscript at Linnean Society, London. --- t. I. Regnum anima), Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae, 1758
https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/10277
Homo (Africanthropus) helmei Dreyer, 1935
Details
Year: 1936
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Florisbad 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Dryer (1935 p. 124) established the name Homo (Africanthropus) helmei for the Florisbad cranium. Campbell (1965) lists the taxon as available and valid. McBrearty and Brooks (2000) invoke Homo helmei in their discussion on the origins of modern human behavior. Kuman et al. (1999) advocate for retaining the name for lack of a better in their discussion of the paleoenvironments and archaeology at Florisbad.

Homo (Javanthropus) soloensis Oppenoorth, 1932
Details
Year: 1932
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Ngandong 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Oppenoorth (1932) established the name Homo (Javanthropus) soloensis based on Ngandong. Campbell (1965) listed the name as available and potentially available with Ngandong 1 as the lectotype, however the english summary included with the original Oppenoorth publication clearly indicated the Ngandong 1 calvaria as the holotype for the taxon. Oppenoorth (1932 p. 63) wrote, "I think it justifiable to separate the Ngandong skull and call it Homo (Javanthropus) soloensis, n. subg., n. sp." Zeitoun et al. (2010) review the systematics and morphological variation among Indonesian fossils.

Authorship Reference
Oppenoorth and W. F. F.
Homo (Javanthropus) soloensis. Ein plistocene mensch van Java.
Wetenschappelijke mededeelingen, 20, 49-75, 1932
Homo (Pithecanthropus) atlanticus Dolinar-Osole, 1956
Details
Year: 1956
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Lectotype: Tighennif 1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Dolinar-Osole (1956) discusses the morphology of the Tighennif (Ternifne) mandibles 1 and 2 and suggests that a genus level distinction as proposed by Arambourg is "premature". Dolinar-Osole (1956 p. 178)  proposes Homo (Pithecanthropus) atlanticus.

A rough English translation of the original Slovenian paragraph reads, "In our view of the hominid system, the name of the new one should read finds of Homo (Pithecanthropus) mauritanicus, atlanticus or ternifinus, where the first names indicated affiliation by signs, and the third the place of the site. Obviously Arambourg does not find it necessary to combine equally high levels of development into a generic name. It is not about transparency of the system and greater uniformity. Perhaps - according to Weinert's system - the nickname "anthropus" with whatever any prefix to indicate a certain stage of development (Pithecanthropus, Sinanthropus, Africanthropus, Euranthropus, Atlanthropus)? From his three reports we cannot know exactly his point of view." (pp. 178-179)

Campbell (1965) lists the name as an available objective junior synonym of Atlanthropus mauritanicus Arambourg, 1954.

Homo (Pithecanthropus) ternifinus Dolinar-Osole, 1956
Details
Year: 1956
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Lectotype: Tighennif 1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Dolinar-Osole (1956) discussed the morphology of the Tighennif (Ternifne) mandibles 1 and 2 and suggested that a genus level distinction such as Atlanthropus proposed by Arambourg was "premature". Dolinar-Osole proposed Homo (Pithecanthropus) atlanticus or ternifinus.

A rough English translation of the original Slovenian sheds light on Dolinar-Osole’s philosophy of nomenclature, 
"In our view of the hominid system, the name of the new specimen should read Homo (Pithecanthropus) mauritanicus, atlanticus or ternifinus, where the first names indicate affiliation by signs, and the third the place of the site. Obviously Arambourg does not find it necessary to combine equally high levels of development into a generic name.” (pp. 178-179)

Campbell (1965) listed the name as an available objective junior synonym of Atlanthropus mauritanicus Arambourg, 1954.
 

Homo (Protanthropus) Bonarelli, 1909
Details
Year: 1909
Taxonomic Rank: Subgenus
Holotype: Neanderthal 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Bonarelli employed Protanthrous Haeckel, 1895 as Homo (Protanthropus) neanderthalensis (King, 1894) Bonarelli, 1895. Campbell (1965) listed Protanthropus Haeckel as nomen nudum, so Bonarelli (1909) becomes the first established use. 

Authorship Reference
G. Bonarelli
Le razze umane e le loro probabili affinità
Bollettino della Società Geografica Italiana, 10(4), 953-979, 1909
Homo (Sinanthropus) erectus yuanmouensis Chengzhi, 1973
Details
Year: 1973
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Holotype: Youanmou
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Hu (1973) established the subspecies Homo (Sinanthropus) erectus yuanmouensis based on two central incisors found in Yuanmou, China. A differential diagnosis is provided in comparision with material from Zhoukoutien Cave (Sinanthropus).  Groves (1989) lists the name as an available junior synonym of Homo erectus officinalis.

Authorship Reference
Homo (erectus seu sapiens) palaeohungaricus Thoma, 1972
Details
Year: 1972
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Syntype: Vertesszöllös Homo II
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Thoma (1966) provides a description of the occiput recovered from the site of Vertesszöllös, Hungaria. A footnote on page 531 provisionally establishes the taxon Homo (erectus seu sapiens) palaeohungaricus. In the view of Thoma, the Verteszöllös occiipital fragment is distinct from Homo habilis and potentially related to Mauer and Ternifine (Tighennif) despite a lack of comparable anatomical material. The author writes, "Nous donnons à l'Homme de Vértesszöllös le 'nom de trouvaille' d' 'Euranthrope' et la dénomination systématique d'Homo (erectus seu sapiens) palaeohungaricus n. ssp. Ce taxon provisoire est nettement séparé de l'H. habilis (Tobias, 1964) mais en même temps ouvert vers les Hommes de Mauer et de Ternifine, vu l'ignorance où nous sommes de sa mandibule."  Thoma (1966) does not explicitly fix Verteszöllös I or II as a type and the provisional nature of the assignment in Thoma (1966) may warrant it as conditionally proposed and unavailable under the Code.

An unambiguous declaration is given in Thoma (1972, JHE) where Verteszöllös II is fixed as the holotype and the taxonomic proposal is made unconditionally.

Groves (1989 p. 205) lists Homo erectus (seu sapiens) palaeohungaricus Thoma, 1965 with no remarks that would indicate it is unavailable or conditionally proposed. On page 285 he ascribes the taxon to Thoma (1966) in L'Anthropologie (Paris), 530. This article was published in 1965 and the name appears on page 531 not 530.

 

Authorship Reference
Homo acheulensis moustieri Wiegers, 1915
Details
Year: 1915
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Le Moustier 1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Wiegers suggested the name Homo acheulensis moustieri for the remains from Le Moustier, France.  The relevant passage appears on page 70, (roughly translated from the german) "So the Acheulean age of Homo Mousteriensis is not in doubt; for the nomenclature it would have been better from the start to designate him Homo Acheulensis Moustieri or at least Homo Le Mousteriensis to be named because Hauser was aware of the real age of the skeleton and was by no means in the dark."

Campbell (1965) lists the subspecies as an available objective junior synonym to Homo transprimigenius mousteriensis.

Authorship Reference
Wiegers
Das geologische Alter des Homo Mousteriensis
Zeitschrift für Ethnologie (ZfE) / Journal of Social and Cultural Anthropology (JSCA), 47(1), 68-72, 1915
https://www.jstor.org/stable/23031190
Homo alpinus Krause, 1909
Details
Year: 1909
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Krapina 5
Status: Invalid
Remark: Homonym
Remarks

Krause (1909) suggested the fossils from Krapina represented a unique species, Homo alpinus. However, Campbell (1965) noted the species epithet, alpinus, is a primary junior homonym. The name alpinus was established in several prior publications to describe racialized populations of extant humans (e.g. Closson, 1897). The name is thus available but objectively invalid.

Authorship Reference
Homo antecessor Bermúdez de Castro et al., 1997
Details
Year: 1997
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: ATD 6-5
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Carbonell et al. (1995) provide the stratigraphic and faunal context of the finds from level TD6 at Gran Dolina, Atapuerca, Spain, and they hint at the taxonomic implications but do not name a new taxon. Bermudez de Castro et al. (1997) established Homo antecessor with ATD6-5 as the holotype. 

Homo antiquus Adloff, 1908
Details
Year: 1908
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Krapina 5
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Adloff, 1908 "Das Gebiss des Menoschen und der Anthropomorphen" proposed the name Homo antiquus for the Krapania material. The name appears first on page 65, where Adloff writes, "Eine besondere Art würde der homo primigenius von Krapina repräsentieren, für welchen damit eine neue Bezeichnung erforderlich wäre (Homo antiquus)," which roughly translates to, "The Homo primigenius of Krapina would represent a special species, for which a new name would be necessary (Homo antiquus)."

There is potential confusion about the source citation, which is listed incorrectly in Campbell (1965).  Campbell referenced Adloff, 1908 "Die Zahne des Homo primigenius von Krapina". There is no mention of Homo antiquus in this publicaiton. However at the end of the paper Adloff mentions his latest work. He says (roughly translated), "For the rest, I refer to my detailed work 'The Gebiss des Menoschen und der Anthropomorphen' published by Julius Springer in Berlin, in which I discussed the facts again in detail."

 The name Homo antiquus is an objective junior synonym for Homo neanderthalensis var. krapinensis Gorjanovic-Kramberger 1902.

Authorship Reference
P. Adloff
Das Gebiss des Menschen und der Anthropomorphen; vergleichend-anatomische Unter-suchungen. Zugleich ein Beitrag zur mensch-lichen Stammesgeschichte
Das Gebiss des Menschen und der Anthropomorphen; vergleichend-anatomische Unter-suchungen. Zugleich ein Beitrag zur mensch-lichen Stammesgeschichte, Julius Springer, Berlin, 1908
https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/125767#page/11/mode/1up
Homo antiquus Ferguson, 1984
Details
Year: 1984
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: A.L. 288-1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Homonym
Remarks

Ferguson (1984) argued that many specimens in the Hadar assemblage do not fit the diagnosis for Australopithecus and should instead be moved to Homo. Rather than move the species to Homo afarensis Ferguson establishes Homo antiquus with 'Lucy',  A.L. 288-1 as the holotype. However, Homo antiquus is preoccupied by Homo antiquus Adloff, 1908, for the Krapina 5 neanderthal skull, and thus Homo antiquus Ferguson, 1984 is a primary junior homonym.

Ferguson (2007) appealed to the ICZN for precedence over Adloff 1908 (case 3432), but the case was closed the following year with no opinion published. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/107007#page/227/mode/1up. The notice states, 

"The following Cases, for which receipts as new applications to the Commission were published though the cases were never published in full, are now closed:

Homo antiquus Ferguson, 1984 (Mammalia, hominidas): proposed precedence over “Homo antiquus Adloff, 1908”. W.W. Ferguson (Case 3432; acknowledgement of receipt published in BZN 64: 209)."

A possible explanation for the closure is that Ferguson may have based the appealed on the fact that Adloff, 1908 as cited in Campbell (1965) makes no mention of Homo antiquus. This is due to an error in Campbell (1965) where the wrong citation is listed. There are two publications for Adloff 1908, one is a short article in Anat. Anz. which is cited by Campbell (1965) but which does not contain the description of Homo antiquus. However, in that article Adloff mentions a book he published that same year (1908). That book, "Das Gebiss des Menschen und der Anthropomorphen Vergleichend-anatomische Untersuchungen Zugleich ein Beitrag zur menschlichen Stammgeschichte" contains the description for Homo antiquus. Thus, Adloff 1908 is the correct authorship for the name and has priority, but the correct citation is the book not the article.

 

Homo antiquus praegens Ferguson, 1989
Details
Year: 1989
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Holotype: KNM-TH 13150
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Ferguson (1989) creates a new subspecies for Homo antiquus Ferguson, 1984 based on the Tabarin mandible described by Ward and Hill (1987). However, Ferguson gives the catalog number for the specimen as KNM-TI 13150, whereas Ward and Hill give the catalog number for the mandible as KNM-TH 13150. This difference notwithstanding it is clear from the text and context that Ferguson intends the Tabarin mandible to be the holotype for the subspecies Homo antiquus praegens. However, Homo antiquus, is a junior homonym with Homo antiquus Adloff, 1908. Thus, the nomen Homo antiquus is available but objectively invalid and Homo praegens is available and valid.  Bonde 2011 deploys the nomen antiquus as Afaranthropus antiquus with A. antiquus (Ferguson, 1984) as the type species. Kissel and Hawks (2015) include KNM-TH 13150 in the same hypodigm as the holotype for Aridipithecus ramidus, ALA-VP-6/1, for which the nomina Homo pragens Ferguson, 1984 or Afaranthropus praegens (Ferguson, 1984) would have priority

Homo aurignacensis hauseri Klaatsch & Hauser
Details
Year: 1910
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Holotype: Combe Capelle
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Klaatsch and Hauser (1910) propose the name Homo aurignacensis hauseri for the adult skeleton from Roc de Combe-Capelle. Originally thought to be Pleistocene age, direct dating by Hoffman et al. (2011) have established the fossil is from the Holocene. This nomen is now widely regarded as a subjective junior synonym of Homo sapiens sapiens.

Campbell (1965) notes that it is not clear from the formatting of the original publication whether the name is intended as a new species with authorship, Homo aurignacensis Hauser, or as a new subspecies Homo aurignacensis hauseri. If the latter, Homo mousteriensis hauseri, Klaatsch and Hauser, 1909 has priority.

Homo australoideus africanus Drennan, 1929
Details
Year: 1929
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Lectotype: Cape Flats
Status: Invalid
Remark: Homonym
Remarks

Drennan (1929) proposes the name Homo astraloideus africanus for the Cape Flats specimen. As noted by Campbell (1965) this combination of names is a primary junior homonym with Homo primigenius africanus Wiedenreich, 1928. 

Authorship Reference
M. R. Drennan
An Australoid Skull from the Cape Flats.
The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 59, 417, 1929
https://doi.org/10.2307%2F2843893
Homo bodoensis Roksandic et al., 2022
Details
Year: 2022
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Bodo 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Roksandic et al. (2022) establish Homo bodoensis with the Bodo 1 specimen as the holotype. They argue this taxon is necessary to represent the lineage leading up to Homo sapiens after the split from the last common ancestor with Neanderthals and Denisovans.

Homo breladensis Marett, 1911
Details
Year: 1911
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Jersey 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Nicolle and Sinel (1910) describe the initial discovery of the site and its histoyr. Keith (1911) first described the dental material from La Cotte de Saint Brelade, Jersey. Marett (1911) further describes the material from the site of La Cotte de St. Brelad and proposes the name Homo breladensis. The holotype includes 9 teeth of adult in (Marett 1911). Widely regarded as Homo neanderthalensis.

Homo calpicus Keith, 1911
Details
Year: 1911
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Gibraltar 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Keith (1911) is a letter to Nature, recounting portions of correspondence bearing on the discovery and naming of the Gibraltar 1 (Forbes Quarry) specimen. Keith (1911) recounts the date of discovery as 1948, nine years before the discovery of the type specimen. Calpicus is the ancient name for the rock of Gibraltar and is suggested by H. Falconer in a letter quoted from by Keith (1911). 

Homo capensis Broom, 1917
Details
Year: 1917
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Boskop 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

In his 1917 letter in the American Museum Journal, Broom provides a brief, two-page account of the discovery of the Boskop 1 calvarium and other remains. In this work he coins the name Homo capensis for the Boskop 1 specimen and remarks that it is most similar to Cro-magnon. See also Gregory 1921 for comments on the same specimen, which Gregory names Homo sapiens Boskop (nomen numdem). 

Authorship Reference
R. Broom
Fossil Man in South Africa
Amer. Mus. J., 17, 141-142, 1917
Homo cepranensis Mallegni et al., 2003
Details
Year: 2003
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: 944/1 - Ceprano 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Ascenzi et al. (1996) describe the Ceparano 1 cranium as Homo erectus. Manzi et al. (2001) present a morphometric analysis. Mallegni et al. (2003) establish the nomen Homo cepranensis. Nomade et al (2011) review the geochronology. Gilbert et al. (2003) reference the name conditionally in quotes and comment on relations to the Daka specimen. Numerous subsequent publications refer to the Ceprano cranium in the context of Homo erectus or Homo heidelbergensis, (e.g. Stringer 2012; Rightmire 2012; Athreya and Hopkins 2021) but do not employ the nomen Homo cepranensis.

Since the name was introduced only Mallegni et al. (2003) and Nomade et al. (2011) use the name.

 

Homo chapellensis Buttel-Reepen, 1911
Details
Year: 1911
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: La Chapelle-aux-Saints
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Buttel-Reepen (1911 p. 55) established the name Homo chapellensis based on the holotype skeleton described by Boule (1911-1913). Campbell (1965) lists the name as an available and potentially valid taxon.

Authorship Reference
H. B. von Buttel-Reepen
Homo Chapellensis
Aus dem Werdegang der Menschheit; der Urmensch vor und während der Eiszeit in Europa, 26, 55-61, 1911
Homo drennani Kleinschmidt, 1931
Details
Year: 1931
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Lectotype: Cape Flats
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Kleinschmidt (?1931 p. 104) referenced that he had established the name Homo drennani in a prior publication. Specifically, he states, 

"Nun ist aber in Sudafrika in einer Sandgrube bei Kap Flats (nahe Kapstadt) ein Schadel gefunden worden, der den Namen Homo australoides africanus (Drennan) erhalten hat. Da es schon einen Homo ‘Austro-Africanus’ und einen ‘Homo africanus’ gibt, habe ich den Namen in ‘Homo drennani’ geändert.2

2 Sitzungsberichte des Forschungsheims für Weltanschauungskunde 1931."

Campbell (1965) lists the nomen as available and potentially valid with the Cape Flats skull as a lectotype.

Authorship Reference
O. Kleinschmidt
Urmensch und Neuzeitmensch
Der Urmensch (only in german), Leipzig, 1931
Homo ehringsdorfiensis Paterson, 1940
Details
Year: 1940
Taxonomic Rank: Species
No type specimen details available.
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Nomen nudum
Remarks

Paterson (1940) lists Homo ehringsdorfiensis in a table and briefly mentions the name in the text but nowhere provides a description or differential diagnosis. Campbell (1965) and Groves (1989) listed it as nomen nudum. Campbell listed the name as an objective junior synonym to Homo heringsdorfensis Moller, 1928 with the Wiemar-Ehringsdorf specimen as the type. Groves treated it as a junior synony of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis King, 1964.  Campbell (1965) and Groves (1989) both misspelled Paterson's name as 'ehringsdorfensis' (missing the last i).

Authorship Reference
Homo erectus hexianensis Huang, 1982
Details
Year: 1982
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Holotype: Hexian
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Huang et al. (1982) established the name Homo erectus hexianensis based on the  

Authorship Reference
Huang , W. , Fang , D. , Ye , and Y.
Preliminary study of the fossil hominid skull and fauna of Hexian, Anhui
Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 20, 248-256, 1982
Homo erectus mapaensis Kurth, 1965
Details
Year: 1965
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Holotype: Maba 1
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Conditionally proposed
Remarks

Kurth (1965, p382-3) proposed the name Homo erectus mapaensis based on the Maba (Ma-pa) cranium. Specifically, he states, 

"Es liegt dagegen weit näher und läßt sich auch morphologisch mindestens ausreichend begründen, in der Domäne der Frühmenschen ein weiteres Beispiel für die Polytypie dieses so überaus langlebigen (eu)homininen Formenkreises aufzufinden, das hier dann vielleicht als Homo erectus mapaensis einzustufen wäre. (p. 383)"

Kurth's use of the word "vielleicht" (=perhaps) indicates a conditional proposal.

Groves (1989) invoked the taxon as H. sapiens mapaensis, and later (2017 p. 71) as Homo mapaensis while remarking on the possibility of the group being fossil representative of "Denisovans".

Howell (1999) invoked the epithet mapaensis (without genus) in describing affinities between Maba and Hathnora (narmadensis). 

Authorship Reference
G. Kurth
Die (Eu)Homininen
In: G. Heberer (Ed.), Menschliche Abstammungslehre, G. Fisher, Stuttgart, 1965
Homo erectus narmadensis Sonakia, 1984
Details
Year: 1984
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Holotype: Narmada
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Sonakia (1984) established Homo erectus narmadensis with the Hathnora specimen as holotype. Groves (1989) discusses the taxon and considers the name available and potentially valid. Kennedy et al. (1991) discusses systematics and relationships with Homo erectus. Howell (1999) discusses the nomenclature and possible affinities to Maba.

Homo erectus newyorkensis Laitman and Tattersall, 2001
Details
Year: 2001
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Holotype: Sm 3
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Laitman and Tattersal (2001) established the name Homo erectus newyorkensis with the Sambungmacan 3 cranium as the holotype. Though their account does not provide a differential diagnosis, it does clearly reference three publications that provide description and comparison (Marquez et al., 2001; Broadfield et al. 2001; Delson et al. 2001). Furthermore, Laitman and Tattersal (2002) specifically advance the idea that the Sm 3 specimen is intermeidate beetween Homo erectus and archaic Homo sapiens, providing the basis for naming the subspecies. Specifically they state, "Indeed, observations from these papers showing that Sm 3 exhibits a number of cranial characteristics at times intermediate between Homo erectus and Homo sapiens, or features of the endocast (such as regions possibly related to language) which appear ‘advanced’ for Homo erectus, provide important data which will be… (p. 342).

Homo erectus ngandongensis Sartono, 1976
Details
Year: 1976
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Holotype: Ngandong 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Sartono (1976) proposed dividing Homo (Pithecanthropus) erectus into several subspecies, one of which being Homo erectus ngandongensis.

Groves (1989 p. 201) included this taxon in his general discussion of Homo erectus but did not list the name as a synonym under any of the taxa he proposed.

Authorship Reference
Homo erectus olduvaiensis Tobias, 1968
Details
Year: 1968
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Holotype: OH 9
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Conditionally proposed
Remarks

Tobias (1968) tentatively proposed Homo erectus olduvaiensis with OH 9 as the holotype. As such it is a conditional proposal and unavailable (Article 15). Specifically, Tobias writes on p. 188, 

"We may tentatively conclude that, in Middle Pleistocene times, Homo erectus-like hominids were present all over the African continent, the representative in Southern Africa being from Swartkrans, while the earliest representative in east Africa is from Olduvai Bed II and in north Africa from Ternifine. On geographical grounds, as well as for convenience until more adequate material is discovered, the three African groups of pithecanthropines might appropriately be dubbed Homo erectus mauritanicus (Ternifine, Sidi Abderrahman and Rabat), Homo erectus olduvaiensis (Olduvai Bed II) and Homo erectus capensis (Swartkrans). The first and third terms follow from the former appellations, Atlanthropus mauritanicus and Telanthropus capensis, while the name H. e. olduvaiensis is a tentative new proposal, pending the full study and description of all the hominine remains from Beds II and IV at Olduvai."

See entry for Homo louisleakeyi Kretzoi, 1984 for additional details.

Authorship Reference
Homo erectus petralonensis Murrill, 1981
Details
Year: 1981
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Holotype: Petralona
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Conditionally proposed
Remarks

Murrill (1981) proposed the name Homo petralonensis conditionally; it is therefore unavailable. Specifically, he writes, "consequently, the time factor becomes important. If the dating for Petralona 1 is as old as 700,000 years B.P., and if sub-specific names are most appropriately used geographically then I would say Petralona 1 should be classified as Homo erectus petralonensis, or given Petralona 1's similarity to Broken Hill 1, and the possibility Petralona 1 may have migrated from Africa--Homo erectus rhodesiensis." (p. 256)

Authorship Reference
R. I. Murrill
Petralona man: A descriptive and comparative study, with new important information on Rhodesian man
Petralona man: A descriptive and comparative study, with new important information on Rhodesian man, Charles C Thomas Pub Limited, Springfield IL, 1981
Homo erectus trinilensis Sartono, 1976
Details
Year: 1980
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Holotype: Trinil 2
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Conditionally proposed
Remarks

Sartono (1980) summarizes his taxonomic reassessment of the Indonesian hominin fossils by stating “Recently, a reappraisal has been carried out on the taxonomic status of the Javanese Pleistocene hominids which suggests the existence of one genus of Homo only consisting of two species, these are Homo erectus (the former Pithecanthropus ) and Homo palaeojavanicus (the former Meganthropus palaeojavanicus ) (Sartono 1975b, 1976). Each of these species again consists of two subspecies. They are Homo erectus ngandongensis and Homo erectus trinilensis, while the second species comprises Homo palaeojavanicus sangiranensis and Homo palaeojavanicus modjokertensis (fig. 6a). If the various subspecies of the Pleistocene man are put in their respective stratigraphic positions, then the following scheme will be obtained, i.e. the progressive Homo erectus ngandongensis with the larger brain and fragile mandible was the late one evolving from the earlier primitive Homo erectus trinilensis having a smaller brain volume but a more robust mandible. This latter in turn may evolve from the earlier Homo palaeojavanicus modjokertensis with the more fragile mandibles than the more robust mandible of the earliest Homo palaeojavanicus sangiranensis (Sartono 1976 fig. 12, 1979a fig. 2)” (p. 125-126).

These taxonomic remarks are then qualified in the very next paragraph where Sartono (1980) states, “Author admits that the above taxonomic scheme is not a final one. Future discoveries on the Javanese Pleistocene hominids will surely add more to our knowledge of these early men.” (p. 126)

This last sentence appears to indicate a conditional taxonomic proposal, and thus the subspecies name “trinilensis” is unavailable.

Homo erectus wushanensis Huang et al., 1991
Details
Year: 1991
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Holotype: CV.939.1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Huang et al. (1991, original text in Mandarin) established the name Homo erectus wushanensis for specimen CV.939.1 a partial mandible with p4-m1 discovered in 1984 from the site of Longgupo. The name is then cited soon after in Huang et al. (1995). Wei et al. (2014) provided an updated account of the site location, stratigraphy and archaeological finds. Bonde (2012) referenced this name as a possible synonym to Homo georgicus.

Authorship Reference
W. Huang , Q. R. Fang , and Others
Wushan hominid site
Wushan hominid site, Ocean, Beijing, 1991
Homo ergaster Groves and Mazák, 1975
Details
Year: 1975
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: KNM-ER 992
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Groves and Mazák (1975) established the name Homo ergaster based on the holotype KNM-ER 992, and included several other East Turkana specimens in the hypodigm. The original description of the holotype is to be found in Leakey et al. (1972).

Authorship Reference
Homo europaeus primigenius Wilser, 1898
Details
Year: 1898
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Holotype: Neanderthal 1
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Nomen nudum
Remarks

Wilser (1898 p. 3 footnote) listed Homo europaeus primigenius but nowhere else provides a description. Campbell (1965) lists this taxon as nomen nudum.

Authorship Reference
Homo floresiensis Brown et al., 2004
Details
Year: 2004
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: LB1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Brown et al. (2004) established Homo floresiensis, with the partial skeleton LB 1 as the holotype, to accommodate fossils excavated from Liang Bua cave on the island of Flores, Indonesia.

Homo florisbadensis Drennan, 1935
Details
Year: 1935
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Florisbad 1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Dreyer (1935) provided the first description of the Florisbad skull and assigned it to a new species Homo (Africanthropus) helmei Dreyer, 1935. Writing shortly after, Drennan (1935) interpreted the skull as more closely resembling Neanderthals and thus offered an alternative name, Homo forisbadensis (helmei). As both names refer to the same type specimen, Drennan's is an objective junior synonym to Homo (Africanthropus) helmei Dreyer, 1935. 

Authorship Reference
M. R. Drennan
The Florisbad skull
S. Afr. J. Sci., 32, 601-602, 1935
Homo fossilis Giuffrida-Ruggeri, 1915
Details
Year: 1915
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Combe Capelle
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Giuffrida-Ruggeri (1915) established the species as Homo fossilis proto-aethiopicus based on the Combe Capelle specimen. Campbell (1965) lists this taxon as an objective junior synonym of Homo aurignacensis hauseri.

Authorship Reference
V. Giuffrida-Ruggeri
Quattro crani preistorici dell' Italia meridionale
Archivio per l'antropologia e la etnologia, 45, 292-315, 1915
Homo fossilis proto-aethiopicus Giuffrida-Ruggeri, 1915
Details
Year: 1915
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Holotype: Combe Capelle
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Giuffrida-Ruggeri (1915) established the subspecies proto-aethiopicus for Combe Capelle. Campbell (1965) lists this taxon as an objective junior synonym of Homo aurignacensis hauseri. Giuffrida-Ruggeri (1921) transfers the subspecies proto-aethiopicus to the species Homo meridionalis.

Under Article 32.5.2.3 the subspecies name proto-aethiopicus should be corrected to protoaethiopicus.

Authorship Reference
V. Giuffrida-Ruggeri
Quattro crani preistorici dell' Italia meridionale
Archivio per l'antropologia e la etnologia, 45, 292-315, 1915
Homo galilensis Joleaud, 1931
Details
Year: 1931
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Zuttiyeh 1
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Nomen nudum
Remarks

Joleaud (1931, p. 467) listed Homo galilensis in reference to Zuttiyeh 1 but does not provide a description or differential diagnosis. Campbell (1965) and Groves (1989) list the name as nomen nudum.

Homo gautengensis Curnoe, 2010
Details
Year: 2010
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: STW 53
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Curnoe (2010) established Homo gautengensis with Stw 53 as the holotype.

Homo georgicus Gabounia et al., 2002
Details
Year: 2002
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: D 2600
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Gabunia and Vekua (1995) provided an early description of the site and initial discoveries. Gabounia et al. (2002) established Homo georgicus, with specimen D 2600 as the holotype, to accommodate subsequent fossils discovered at Dminisi, which they grouped together as a single, variable species.

 

Homo gibraltarensis Battaglia, 1924
Details
Year: 1924
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Gibraltar 1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Objective junior synonym of Hmo calpicus. Gibraltar (Forbes Quarry)

Authorship Reference
R. Battaglia
L'uomo fossile
Urgeschichtlicher Anzeiger, 1, 8-22, 1924
Homo grimaldicus Hilber 1922
Details
Year: 1922
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Grimaldi 1
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Nomen nudum
Remarks

Hilber (1922 p. 9) mentions Homo grimaldicus Verneau but provides no description nor reference. Campbell (1965) lists the name as nomen nudum. It is also an objective junior synonym of Homo grimaldii Lapouge, 1905-6.

Authorship Reference
V. Hilber
Urgeschichte Steiermarks
Naturwissenschaftlicher Verin Für Steiermark (Volume is 58 B), 58, 1-11, 1922
Homo grimaldii Lapouge, 1905
Details
Year: 1905
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Grimaldi 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Lapouge (1905 p. 18) established Homo grimaldii but does not fix a specific type specimen. Verneau (1906) established the young male skeleton from 7.75 m level at Grimaldi Cave I Grotte des Enfants, France as the lectotype. This species is widely regarded as early Homo sapiens.

Authorship Reference
V. D. Lapouge
Die Rassengeschichte der franzosischen Nation
Politisch-anthropologische Revue Monatsschr. für prakt. Politik, für polit. Bildung u. Erziehung auf biolog. Grundlage, 4, 16-24, 1906
Homo habilis Leakey, Tobias & Napier, 1964
Details
Year: 1964
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: OH 7
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

The species Homo habilis was established by Leakey et al. (1964) to accommodate new fossils discovered in 1960 from Olduvai Gorge, locality FLKNN 1 that were clearly distinct from the Zinjanthropus (now Australopithecus or Paranthropusboisei material discovered in 1959. The type specimen of Homo habilis, Olduvai Hominid 7 (OH 7) was united with OH 4, OH 6, OH 8 and OH 13 as paratypes to erect the new species. The original diagnostic description highlights the presence of a strong, precision grip in Homo habilis, ostensibly part of an adaptation for tool use. The authors note an increased average cranial capacity in Homo habilis relative to Australopithecus (ca 600 vs 400 cc), but smaller than what is seen in Homo erectus (ca 800 cc). The skull of Homo habilis has reduced temporal lines that never converge in the midline and thus never form the sagittal crest seen in Australopithecus and the greatest breath of the skull is found between The molars are noted to be smaller than those of Australopithecus, especially in the bucco-lingual dimension. Throughout the 1960’s - 1990’s Homo habilis (sensu lato) became a widely defined taxon that included a very large number of specimens from Olduvai Gorge and Koobi Fora in Kenya. The taxon was revised by Wood (1992) and split into Homo habilis (sensu stricto) and Homo rudolfensis.

 

Homo heidelbergensis Schoetensack, 1908
Details
Year: 1908
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Mauer 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Schoetensack (1908) provides a monograph treatment of the Mauer mandible and proposes the nomen Homo heidelbergensis with the Mauer mandible as the holotype. Mounier et al. (2011) includes the Mauer mandible as part of a detailed morphometric analysis of mandibles. Stringer (2012) and Buck and Stringer (2014) argue for the continued usage of the nomen. Athreya and Hopkins (2021) provide an alternative view on the nomenclature of Middle Pleistocene Homo.

Authorship Reference
O. Schoetensack
Der Unterkiefer des Homo Heidelbergensis aus den Sanden von Mauer bei Heidelberg. Ein Beitrag zur Paläontologie des Menschen
Der Unterkiefer des Homo Heidelbergensis aus den Sanden von Mauer bei Heidelberg. Ein Beitrag zur Paläontologie des Menschen, Wilheilm Engelmann, 1908
https://www.gutenberg.org/files/36382/36382-h/36382-h.htm
Homo heringsdorfensis Moller, 1928
Details
Year: 1928
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Ehringsdorf F
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Nomen nudum
Remarks

Werth (1928 p. 201) mentioned Homo heringsdorfensis and attributed the name to A. Moller in "Fuhrer durch das Museum in Weimar", but Werth provides no description. Campbell (1965) and Groves (1989) both listed this taxon as nomen nudum.

Authorship Reference
E. Werth
Die körperlichen Reste des fossilen Menschen II. Die Neandertalstufe
Der Fossile Mensch: Grundzüge einer Paläanthropologie, Berlin, 1928, ISBN 35129003649254
Homo homo var. neanderthalensis Blanc, 1961
Details
Year: 1961
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Holotype: Leuca 1
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Nomen nudum
Remarks

Blanc (1961) provided a detailed morphological description of a single upper M2 from a juvenile individual, designated Leuca 1 from Grotta delle Tre Porte, Italy. The author concluded the tooth is a Neanderthal but took the position that neanderthals are not a distinct species from Homo sapiens and so offers the synonym Homo homo var. neanderthalensis to emphasize this interpretation. The author included a detailed description, illustrations, and measurements of the tooth, all to illustrate how the tooth belongs to the neanderthal taxon and also that neanderthals are the same species as extant humans.

Campbell (1965) listed the name is nomen nudum for lack of any differential diagnosis to distinguish Homo homo neanderthalensis from any other taxon.

Homo javanensis primigenius Houze, 1896
Details
Year: 1896
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Trinil 2
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Houzé (1896) provided a description of the fossils from Trinil and suggested that if they represent the oldest humans then Pithecanthropus should be replaced with Homo javanensis primigenius. Houzé (1896) is the oldest use of the nomen primigenius in the species-group.

Campbell (1965) listed Homo javanensis primigenius as an objective junior synonym of Pithecanthropus erectus.

Authorship Reference
E. Houzé
Le Pithecanthropus Erectus
Revue de l'Université de Bruxelles, 1, 410-438, 1896
https://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001328357r
Homo kanamensis Leakey, 1935
Details
Year: 1935
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Kanam
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Leakey (1935) established the name Homo kanamensis for modern human remains recovered from Kanam, Kenya, though at the time Leakey was unsure of their age.

Authorship Reference
L. S. B. Leakey
The Stone Age Races of Kenya
The Stone Age Races of Kenya, Oxford University Press, Humphrey Milford, London, 1935
Homo kenyaensis Zeitoun, 2000
Details
Year: 2000
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: KNM-ER 3733
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Zeitoun (2000) established Homo kenyaensis with KNM-ER 3733 as the holotype. 

Homo kiik-kobensis Bontch-Osmolovskii, 1941
Details
Year: 1941
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Kiik-Koba 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Bonch-Osmolovskii (1941, p. 137 in russian, p. 168 of the French summary) established Homo kiik-kobensis (note the lack of "i") based on phalanges recovered from the site of Kiik-Koba, Crimea.

Campbell (1965) lists Kiik-kobiensis (with an "i") as available and valid. Groves (1989 p. 289) lists Homo kiik-kobensis as an available junior synonym for Homo sapiens neanderthalensis.

Based on the French summary it seems the initial proposal for the name is offered conditionally, citing limitations on establishing a species on hand bones and without the rest of the skeleton. Bonch-Osmolovskii writes, 

"Certains caractères ... sont si différents que sa séparation en une espèce génetique particulière, Homo kiik-kobensis, reçoit un fondement réel. Mais il serait imprudent de résoudre cette question si importante en principe sans tenir compte des indications fournies par les membres infériers d'autant plus que le matériel comparatif concernant la main est fort incomplet." (p. 168).

However, conditional proposals are allowed under the Code for names established prior to 1961 (Article 15)

Authorship Reference
G. A. Bontch-Osmolovskii
Chapter 9: Conclusion
Paleolit Kryma Mosca (only in russian), 1941
Homo larterti Pycraft, 1925
Details
Year: 1925
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Cro-Magnon
Status: Potentially valid
Remark: Nomen nudum
Remarks

Pycraft (1925b) "Diagnosis of four species..." proposed Homo larterti based on Cro-Magnon. Pycraft (1925b) provided a brief description and also indicated a description in a prior report (apprarently intending Pycraft 1925a, "On the calavaria found...") but did not provide a reference to the report as required in Article 12. If the brief description in Pycraft is accepted and/or the reference to the earlier (1925a) report is considered a valid indication (as required in Article 12.2) then the name is available.

Pycraft (1925b) likely committed a lapsis calami in naming Homo larterti. He likely intending to name it after Eduard Lartet, who helped discover the Cro-Magnon fossils. Campbell (1965) listed the name as nomen nudem  and misspells it as 'laterti'.  Groves (1989 p. 291) emends it without note as 'larteti'.

Homo le mousteriensis Wiegers, 1915
Details
Year: 1915
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Le Moustier 1
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Nomen nudum
Remarks

Campbell (1965) lists this taxon as unavailable because the name is not a binomen. 

Authorship Reference
Wiegers
Das geologische Alter des Homo Mousteriensis
Zeitschrift für Ethnologie (ZfE) / Journal of Social and Cultural Anthropology (JSCA), 47(1), 68-72, 1915
https://www.jstor.org/stable/23031190
Homo leakeyi Paterson, 1940
Details
Year: 1940
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Kanjera - No Type Fixed
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Nomen nudum
Remarks

Leakey (1935) describes modern looking fossils from Kanjera. Paterson (1949) lists Homo leakeyi (Kanjera) in a table but nowhere in the text discusses the taxon. Campbell (1965) lists the name as nomen nudem. Groves (1989) citing Campbell (1965) lists Homo leakeyi Paterson, 1949 (p. 291) among synonyms for Homo sapiens but does not comment on its availability. 

Authorship Reference
Homo leakeyi Heberer, 1963
Details
Year: 1963
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: OH 9
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Conditionally proposed
Remarks

Paterson (1940) included the name Homo leakeyi in a table but with no description and thus that name is nomen nudum.

Heberer (1963) introduced the name Homo leakeyi, with OH 9 as the holotype, to represent a taxon comprising African Pleistocene specimens formally lumped into Homo erectus.

Kretzoi (1984) established a new nomen for the taxon, Homo (Proanthropus) louisleakeyi , based on the holotype OH 9 because he concluded that Homo leakeyi Heberer, 1963 is preempted by Homo leakeyi Paterson 1940. However, it is not, because H. leakeyi Paterson, 1940 is nomen nudum and unavailable. Nonetheless, H. leakeyi Heberer was conditionally proposed and also unavailable, and thus Groves (1999; 2012) suggests the proper available name for the taxon including OH 9 is Homo louisleakeyi Kretzoi, 1984.

Groves (1989) does not mention Homo louisleakeyi, but Groves (1999) does, and it appeaers as a potentially valid taxon in a PhD thesis by Groves's student DD Argue (2006) and later by Groves (2012).

Homo longi Ji and Ni, 2021
Details
Year: 2021
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: HBSM2018-000018(A)
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

The species Homo longi Ji and Ni, 2001 was established by Ji et al. (2021) to accommodate the Harbin skull, a complete hominin cranium found in northeastern China, dating to the Middle Pleistocene.

Homo louisleakeyi Kretzoi, 1984
Details
Year: 1984
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: OH 9
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Paterson (1940) included the name Homo leakeyi in a table but with no description and thus that name is nomen nudum.

Heberer (1963) introduced the name Homo leakeyi, with OH 9 as the holotype, to represent a taxon comprising African Pleistocene specimens formally lumped into Homo erectus.

Kretzoi (1984) established a new nomen for the taxon, Homo (Proanthropus) louisleakeyi , based on the holotype OH 9 because he concluded that Homo leakeyi Heberer, 1963 is preempted by Homo leakeyi Paterson 1940. However, it is not, because H. leakeyi Paterson, 1940 is nomen nudum and unavailable. Nonetheless, H. leakeyi Heberer was conditionally proposed and also unavailable, and thus Groves (1999; 2012) suggests the proper available name for the taxon including OH 9 is Homo louisleakeyi Kretzoi, 1984.

Groves (1989) does not mention Homo louisleakeyi, but Groves (1999) does, and it appeasers as a potentially valid taxon in a PhD thesis by Groves's student DD Argue (2006) and later by Groves (2012).

It is included as a valid taxon in Gyenis (2002) and mentioned as well in Derricourt (2009).

Authorship Reference
M. Kretzoi
Note on Homo leakeyi Heberer
Anthropol. Kozl., 28, 189-190, 1984
Homo luzonensis Détroit et al., 2019
Details
Year: 2019
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: CCH6
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Détroit et al. (2019) establish the species Homo luzonensis to accommodate fossil material discovered in 2010 on the island of Luzon in the Philippines.

This taxon has been invoked 6 times since its announcement, Detroit et al. (2019), Grun et al. (2020), Larena et al. (2021), Teixeira et al (2021), Ochoa et al. (2021), Canilao et al. (2021). 

Homo marstoni Paterson, 1940
Details
Year: 1940
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Lectotype: Swanscombe
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Nomen nudum
Remarks

T. T. Paterson (1940) includes the entry "Homo marstoni (Swanscombe)" in a table outlining the main taxonomic groups of humans referenced in his discussion on paleolithic cultures. While numerous other taxa are mentioned, Homo marstoni is nowhere discussed in the text and appears only in the table. As best as can be determined this is the first published use of this name, however there is no description, no diagnosis, nor any reference to another published work containing a description of the taxon whatsoever. Thus, this act is an unambiguous nomen nudum and was noted as such by Campbell (1965).

Authorship Reference
Homo mediterraneus fossilis Behm, 1915
Details
Year: 1915
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Syntype: Bonn-Oberkassel 1 - D 998
Status: Invalid
Remark: Homonym
Remarks

Campbell (1965) listed this taxon as a junior homonym to Homo fossilis proto-aethiopicus Giuffrida-Ruggeri, 1915.

Behm established the nomen with Bonn-Oberkassel specimens 1 and 2 as syntypes. On page 164 he writes, 

"Wir haben es hier wohl, folgert letzterer, ahnlich wie bei den Gebeinen aus dem Hohlendfels im Frankishen Jura, mit alteren Verbreitungswellen des Lößmenschen (H. mediterraneus fossilis) zu tun, dieauf einer tieferen Entwicklungsstufe dene des Renntierjagers (H. europaeus fossilis) noch ziemlich nahe standen." 

Which loosely translates to 

"Here, the latter concludes, similar to the bones from the Hohlendfels in the Frankish Jura, we have to do with the older waves of the loess (H. mediterraneus fossilis), which at a lower stage of development are those of the reindeer hunter (H. europaeus fossilis) were close."

Authorship Reference
Homo meridionalis Giuffrida-Ruggeri, 1921
Details
Year: 1921
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Combe Capelle
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks
No remarks available.
Authorship Reference
Giuffrida-Ruggeri
Su l'origine dell' uomo, nuove teorie e documenti
Su l'origine dell' uomo, nuove teorie e documenti, Zanichelli, Bologna, 1921
Homo meridionalis proto-aethiopicus Giuffrida-Ruggeri, 1921
Details
Year: 1921
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Holotype: Combe Capelle
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Giuffrida-Ruggeri (1921) established the new species meridionalis and moved the subspecies proto-aethiopicus to it. Campbell (1965) lists the name as an available objective junior synonym to Homo aurignacensis hauseri Klaatsch and Hauser, 1910.

Under Article 32.5.2.3 the subspecies name proto-aethiopicus should be corrected to protoaethiopicus.

Authorship Reference
Giuffrida-Ruggeri
Su l'origine dell' uomo, nuove teorie e documenti
Su l'origine dell' uomo, nuove teorie e documenti, Zanichelli, Bologna, 1921
Homo microcranous Ferguson 1995
Details
Year: 1995
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: KNM-ER 1813
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Ferguson (1995) established the name Homo microcranous with KNM-ER 1813 as the holotype. Ferguson (1995) mistakenly attributes Hominoidea to Simpson 1931 and Homininae to Simpson, 1945. Both should be attributed to Gray 1825.

Homo modjokertensis von Koenigswald, 1936
Details
Year: 1936
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Mojokerto 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Von Koenigwald (1936 p. 1007) established Homo modjokertensis with the Mojokerto child as the holotype. Campbell (1965) and Groves (1989) both recognize the name as available and potentially valid. 

Authorship Reference
G. H. R. von Koenigswald
Ersete Mitteilung uber einen fossilen Hominiden aus dem Altpleistocaen Ostjavas
Proceedings of the Section of Sciences, Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, 39, 1000-1009, 1936
Homo mousteriensis hauseri Klaastsch & Hauser, 1909
Details
Year: 1909
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Le Moustier 1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Klaatsch (1909) established the name Homo mousteriensis hauseri with the young skeleton from La Moustier as the holotype. Klaatsch provided anatomical description and diagnosis to support his assertion it is allied with Homo neanderthalensis.

Campbell (1965) listed the name as an available objective junior synonym of Homo transprimigenius mousteriensis Forrer, 1908. Campbell (1965) noted that it is unclear from the original publication whether the epithet "hauseri" was intended as a subspecies or to indicate authorship. Campbell elected to treat the epithet as a subspecies. 

Forrer (1908 p. 55) mentioned the name Homo mousteriensis hauseri Klaatsch as published in a newspaper article (frankfurt Zeitung), suggesting that Klaatsch's name may have priority over Homo transprimigenius mousteriensis Forrer, 1908. Forrer (1908) used 'houseri' as a subspecific epithet.

Groves (1989) listed Homo mousteriensis hauseri Klaatsch and Hauser, 1909, as an available junior synonym of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis.

Homo murrensis Weinert, 1936
Details
Year: 1936
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Steinheim
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Conditionally proposed
Remarks
No remarks available.
Authorship Reference
H. Weinert
Der Urmenschenschädel von Steinheim
Z. Morphol. Anthropol., 35(3), 463-518, 1936
Homo naledi Berger et al., 2015
Details
Year: 2015
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: DH1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Berger et al. (2015) established the name Homo naledi, with the DH 1 partial skeleton as the holotype, to accommodate new fossil discoveries recovered from the Dinaledi (Rising Star) cave system, South Africa.

Homo naledi is characterized as having features of both australopiths as well as those more in line with the Homo genus (Berger, 2015). Berger classifies H. naledi as having a similar cranial, foot, and lower limb morphology to that of early Homo species, but a more australopith-like morphology in its torso and proximal femur. The original excavation was the largest collection of a single hominid species found, with 15 discovered individuals representing H. naledi, including the type specimen DH 1 and and paratypes DH 3, DH 4, DH 5, and U.W. 101-377. The name “naledi” itself refers to the Rising Star cave system the type specimen was first discovered in, translating to “star” in the Sotho language. The remains found at the Dinaledi Chamber have been dated to a period between 236 ka and 335 ka (Dirks et al., 2017). A 2017 excavation of the Lesedi Chamber of the Rising Star cave system found at least three additional H. naledi specimens, including the remains of both adults and juveniles (Hawks et al., 2017). 

Homo naulettensis Baudouin, 1916
Details
Year: 1916
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: La Naulette
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Baudouin (1916) establised Homo naulettensis with the Naulette specimen as holotype. Baudouin provides a description and comparison with Homo heidelbergensis. Campbell (1965) listed this taxon as nomen nudum. Groves (1989) listed it as available and potentially valid. 

Authorship Reference
Baudouin
Sur L'antériorité de la mâchoire trouvee a la Naulette
Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, 172, 519-520, 1916
https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k3115n
Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864
Details
Year: 1864
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Neanderthal 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

King (1864) established the name Homo neanderthalensis based on the Neanderthal 1 specimen recovered from Klein Feldhofer Grotto near Dusseldorf, Germany in 1856. Schmitz (2002) provided an analysis of the context of the original discovery site at Feldhofer Cave. Krings et al. (1997) established an early DNA record of neanderthals. Green et al. (2010) provided the first genomic analysis of neanderthals.

Homo neanderthalensis var. aniensis Sergi, 1935
Details
Year: 1935
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Lectotype: Saccopastore 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Sergi (1936) established Homo neanderthalensis var. aniensis based on Saccopastore 1 as the holotype. Campbell (1965) lists the taxon as available and valid.

Homo neanderthalensis var. krapinensis Gorjanovic-Kramberger, 1902
Details
Year: 1902
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Krapina 5
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Gorjanovic-Kramberger (1902) suggested that the Krapina specimens are of the same general form as neanderthal but a different race. He writes,

"Wiewohl also der Mensch von Krapina -- wie gezeigt wurde -- zweifelshone dem Formenkreise des Homo neanderthalensis angehurt so scheint er uns doch, was den Langen-Breiten-Index anlangt, ein andere Rasse darzustellen. Homo neanderthalensis aus dem Neanderthale ist ein an der oberen Grenze stehender Mesocephalus, der Homo von Krapina aber ist -- wie schon bemerekt wurd -- ein Hyper-Brachycephalus, welcher auch demgemass ein andere Rasse oder Varietat des Homo neanderthalensis darstellt, welche man fuglich als Homo neanderthalensis var. Krapinensis bezeichnen und unterscheiden konnte." (pp. 204-205)

Which translates roughly to:

"Although the Krapina man - as has been shown - doubtlessly belongs to the circle of forms of Homo neanderthalensis, he seems to us to represent a different race as far as the long-width index is concerned. Homo neanderthalensis from the Neander valley is at the upper limit for mesocephalic, but the Homo from Krapina is - as has already been noted - hyper-brachycephalic, which accordingly represents another breed or variety of Homo neanderthalensis, which is suitably called Homo neanderthalensis var. Krapinensis in order to designate and differentiate them." 

Campbell (1965) assumed the holotype of this nomen to be associated with the parietal and occipital fragments described by Gorjanovic-Kramberger (1902) and belonging to Krapina D. Since that time the Krapina specimens have been resorted and that material is now identified as Krapina 5 (Caspari and Radovcic, 2006). 

Note that Article 45.6 of the ICZN states that the use of var. prior to 1961 is considered subspecific (as opposed to infraspecific) and thus coordinates at the species rank.

Homo niger Wilser, 1903
Details
Year: 1903
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Grimaldi 1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Homonym
Remarks

Wilser (1903) invoked the name Homo niger in discussing modern human races, but not in direct reference to the Grimaldi fossil remains.

Campbell (1965) lists Homo niger Wilser, 1903 as a junior homonym and also an objective junior synonym of Homo grimaldii Lapouge, 1906.

Further work is needed to fully establish the availability and status of this taxon.

Homo otokensis Zeitoun, 2000
Details
Year: 2000
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: KNM-ER 3883
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Zeitoun (2000) established the name Homo okotensis with KNM-ER 3883 as the holotype.

Homo palaeojavanicus modjokertensis Sartono, 1976
Details
Year: 1976
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
No type specimen details available.
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks
No remarks available.
Authorship Reference
Homo palaeojavanicus sangiranensis Sartono, 1976
Details
Year: 1976
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Lectotype: Sangiran 6
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks
No remarks available.
Authorship Reference
Homo pithecanthropus Manouvrier, 1896
Details
Year: 1896
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Trinil 2
Status: Invalid
Remark: Conditionally proposed
Remarks

Manouvrier (1896) provided a detailed review and interpretation of the Trinil fossils reported by Dubois (1982, 1894). On page 456 he presents an alternate name Homo pithecanthropus but he specifically indicates that while he thinks this name would be least controversial he is not proposing it and that he believe P. erectus to have priority. Specifically he states (p. 456),

"La question de dénomination n'a aucune importance. J'ai repoussé la formation d'une famille nouvelle, mais je ne vois pas
d'inconvénient à conserver le nom de P. E. qui représente l'opinion de M. Dubois sur le degré très inférieur d'évolution de la race
deTrinil,o pinion dont rien ne démontre la fausseté jusqu'à présent.

Si le nom de P. E. ne jouissait du droit de priorité, j'eusse accepté tout aussi volontiers le nom d'homme pliocène de Trinil ou même malgré sesdéfauts celui de Homo Javanensis primigenius proposépar M. Houzé.

Mais le nom quiré pondrait le mieux à mamanière devoiret qui, sans diminuer en rien les grands mérites des travaux de M. Dubois ni la haute portée de sa découverte,réunirait les opi nionslesmoins divergentes, serait Homo pithecanthropus. Ce n'est point là une proposition."

The last sentence clearly indicates Manouvrier does not intend to propose the name Homo pithecanthropus. The Code seems ambiguous regarding the treatment of names so offered (but not proposed). 

Also, as noted by Manouvrier (1896) and later by Campbell (1965), based as it is on the same type specimen, the alternate name is an objective junior synonym to Pithecanthropus erectus Dubois.

Authorship Reference
L. Manouvrier
Réponse aux objections contre le Pithecanthropus
Réponse aux objections contre le Pithecanthropus, Paris: Extrait des Bulletins de la Société d'Anthropologie de Paris, 1896
https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=O6MrAAAAYAAJ
Homo predmostensis Absolon, 1920
Details
Year: 1920
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Predmost 21
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Absolon (1920) established the name Homo predmostensis (p. 365). Campbell (1965) lists the name as an available objective junior synonym to Notanthropus eurafricanus archaius Sergi 1911.

Authorship Reference
K. Absolon
Die Funde von Predmost
Klaatsch, H. (Ed.) Der Werdegang der Menschheit und die Enststehung der Kultur, Deutsches Berlagshaus Bong and Co., Berlin, 1920
Homo predmosti Matiegka, 1938
Details
Year: 1938
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Predmost 21
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks
No remarks available.
Authorship Reference
J. Matiegka
Homo Predmostensis, Fosilni Clovek Z Predmosti Na Morave
Homo Predmostensis, Fosilni Clovek Z Predmosti Na Morave, I Lebky, V. Praze, Ceska Akademie Ved a Umeni, Prague, 1938
https://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10029566728/
Homo primigenius Schwalbe, 1904
Details
Year: 1904
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Neanderthal 1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Schwalbe, in a lecture delivered during a meeting of the Society of German Naturalists and Physicians, held at Cassel in 1903, and subsequently published in 1904, proposed the name Homo primigenius with the Neanderthal 1 specimen as the holotype. Both Campbell (1965 p. 22) and Groves (1989 p. 288) list this taxon as an objective junior synonym of Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864. It is also a primary junior homonym to Homo javanensis primigenius Houzé, 1896. Thus, the name is available but objectively invalid.

Authorship Reference
G. Schwalbe
Die Vorgeschichte des Menschen
Die Vorgeschichte des Menschen (Printed version of talk presented in 1903.), Vieweg und Sohn, Brunswick, 1904
Homo primigenius africanus Weidenreich, 1928
Details
Year: 1928
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: E686
Status: Invalid
Remark: Homonym
Remarks

Weidenreich (1928) proposed Homo primigenius africanus for the Kabwe (Broken Hill) specimen, however Homo primigenius is a primary junior homonym to Homo javanensis primigenius Houzé, 1896. 

Authorship Reference
Weidenreich
Entwicklungs- und Rassetypen des Homo primigenius
Natur und Museum, die Senckenberg-Naturzeitschrift, 58, 1-62, 1928
Homo primigenius asiaticus Weidenreich, 1932
Details
Year: 1932
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Holotype: Ngandong 1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Homonym
Remarks

In discussing the finds from Ngandong, Weidenreich (1932) suggested Homo primigenius asiaticus. Weidenreich (1932 p. 250) writes, 

"Die neuesten javanishen Funde (Oppenoorth 1932) aprechen dafür, dass der "Homo soloensis" trotz seines allgemeinen Primigenius typus wiederum eine Eigenform darstelte, die, weil sich seine Besonderheiten an allen gefundenen Schadeln in gleicher Weise zeigen, wohl nur rassich dedingt sein kann. 
Wir hätten es danach hier vielleicht mit einem Homo primigenius asiaticus zu tun. Bei jeder dieser Rassenformen konnten sich dann bestinmte primitivere Merkmale erhalten haben, die vielleicht bei einer anderen verloren gegangen sind."

which loosely translates to, 

"The latest Javanese finds (Oppenoorth 1932) suggest that the "Homo soloensis", despite its general Primigenius type, was again a peculiar form which, because its peculiarities are shown in the same way on all skulls found, can only be racially specific.
Given that, we might be dealing with a Homo primigenius asiaticus. With each of these race forms certain more primitive characteristics could then have been retained, which may have been lost in another."

Weidenreich's suggested name is given conditionally but because he is writing prior to 1961 the name is available. Campbell (1965) noted asiatics is a specific homonym (Linnaeus, 1758) and also that the taxon is an objective junion synonym to Homo (Javanthropus) soloensis Oppenoorth, 1932. Groves (1989) listed the taxon as an available subjective junior synonym to Homo erectus.  The nomen Homo primigenius asiaticus is thus available but objectively invalid.

Homo primigenius galilaeensis Hennig, 1932
Details
Year: 1932
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Holotype: Zuttiyeh 1
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Nomen nudum
Remarks

Hennig (1932) in a summary of (then) recent discoveries listed on p. 135 Homo primigenius Galilaeensis among other taxa but does not provide a description or diagnosis. Campbell (1965) indicated the taxon is nomen nudum.

Authorship Reference
E. Hennig
Fortschritte der Altsteinzeit-Forchung in der Alten Welt
Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen, 78, 134-137, 1932
Homo priscus Lapouge, 1899
Details
Year: 1899
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Lectotype: Chancelade
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Lapouge (1899) established Homo priscus in reference to pre-sapiens populations exemplified by Laugerie and Chancelade (footnote p. 16; figures 9 and 10 on pp. 169, 170; and text on p. 170 and after). Campbell (1965) fixed Chancelade as the lectotype and recognized Homo priscus Lapouge, 1899 as available and valid. 

Authorship Reference
G. V. Lapouge
L'aryen Son Role Social
L'Aryen; son rôle social, A. Fontemoing, Paris, 1899
Homo priscus Krause, 1909
Details
Year: 1909
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Spy I
Status: Invalid
Remark: Homonym
Remarks

Krause (1909) provided detailed anatomical description of the human skeleton and comparative analysis of fossil forms including fossils from Neanderthal, Spy and Krapina, each of which he assigned to separate species in accord with his assertion that they each represented independent lineages rather than subspecies of Homo primigenius. On page 176 Krause proposed the names Homo priscus and Homo spyensis as alternate names based on the Spy 1 specimen.

Campbell (1965) noted that Homo priscus Krause, 1909 is a primary junior homonym to Homo priscus Lapouge, 1899. Krause's name is thus available but objectively invalid.
 

Authorship Reference
Homo rhodesiensis Woodward, 1921
Details
Year: 1921
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: E686
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Woodward (1921) establsihes Homo rhodesiensis with the Kabwe skull, E686, as the holotype. Many regard the taxon as a subjective junior synoym of Homo heidelbergensis (e.g. ). Pycraft (1928) provides a detailed morphological description and establshes rhodesiensis as the type species for a new genus, Cyphanthropus. Grun et al. (2020) provide updated geochronology for the holotype and comments on the taxonomy. Additional commentary on systematics and taxonomy can be found in Athreya and Hopkins (2021), Schwartz and Tatersal (2010).

Homo saldanensis Drennan, 1955
Details
Year: 1955
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: SAM-PQ-EH 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Drennan (1955, p. 634) proposed Homo saldanensis with the skull from Hopefield (Saldanha) as the holotype.

Campbell (1965) listed the name as available but has the species epithet misspelled as 'saldenesis'. Groves (1989 p. 204) discussed the taxon but misspells it as 'saldanhensis'. It is, however, spelled correctly in the subject index and in the listing on p. 284.

Roksandic et al. (2022a) included the Saldanha specimen in the hypodigm for Homo bodoensis. In a reply, Sarmiento and Pickford (2022) noted that Homo saldanensis Drennan, 1955 has priority over Homo bodoensis. In response Roksandic et al. (2022b) argued that Homo saldanensis Drennan, 1955 is a nomen nudum because "Drennan (1955) admits that the Saldanha skull does not have any diagnotic traits," (Roksandic et al., 2022b) and therefor does not compley with Article 13 of the Code requiring proposed nomina include "a descripton or definition that states in words characters that are purported to differentiate the taxon." (ICZN, 1999)

Drennan (1955) begins the article by saying "The Saldanha skull has no individual feature that is not found in one or other of the known human fossils, but it has an interesting combination of primitive characters that give it a distinctive position in the human pedigree." (p. 625). Drennan goes on to provide a comparative description of the Saldanha specimen relative to Kabwe, Pithecanthropus, Neanderthals and various "races" of Homo sapiens. Drennan argued that Saldanha has a diagnostic constellation of traits that is distinct from any other taxon. He concluded his paper by saying "When with this there is taken into account the great thickness of the bones and other distinctive features of the Sladanha skull, the author considers it logical to designate Saldanha man as Homo saldanensis." The comparative descriptions and concluding statements appear to conform to the requirements of Article 13, and hence we argue that Homo saldanensis is available and potentially valid.

Authorship Reference
Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758
Details
Year: 1758
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Lectotype: Linnaeus
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Homo nosce te ipsum. The species Homo sapiens was described by Linnaeus in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae (1758) but no holotype was designated as part of the original description, as was customary at the time. The question of what person should serve as the type specimen is addressed in a FAQ on the ICZN website by David Notton and Chris Stringer, where they argue Carl Linnaeus himself is the appropriate lectotype as designated by William Stearn in 1959. Norton and Stringer also refute the designation of Edward Cope as a type for Homo sapiens. Cope is unavailable as a lectotype because he was not alive in 1758 and therefore not among the specimens considered by Linnaeus. Spamer (1999) provides a full description of the history and context of the debate. Historically, biological anthropology is replete with numerous taxonomies that recognize subspecies and races of Homo sapiens but current consensus is that humans form a single species and prior racial classifications served largely colonial and imperial rather than biological or taxonomic interests. The fossil record of Homo sapiens extends possibly to 300 ka (Hublen et al. 2017) and includes several morphological subspecies such as Homo sapiens idaltu from Herto, Ethiopia (White et al. 2003). 

Authorship Reference
C. Linnaeus
Systema naturae per regna tria naturae :secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis.
Systema naturae per regna tria naturae :secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. (https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/542 --- Paged continuously. --- "4me edition originale...de mème que les éditions 2 et 6."--Hulth. --- Projected v.3, Mineralia, not published; manuscript at Linnean Society, London. --- t. I. Regnum anima), Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae, 1758
https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/10277
Homo sapiens Boskop Gregory, 1921
Details
Year: 1921
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Holotype: Boskop 1
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Nomen nudum
Remarks

Gregory (1921 p. 180) lists Homo sapiens Boskop. Campbell (1965) lists as unavailable because name is not latinized as required by Article 11. Objective junior synonym of Homo capensis Broom, 1917.

Homo sapiens altaiensis Derevianko, 2011
Details
Year: 2011
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Denisova 4
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Nomen nudum
Remarks

Derevianko (2011) provides a monograph-length review of anatomically modern Homo sapiens and mentions five geographic subspecies of homo sapiens: "H. s. africanensis (Africa), H. sapiens orientalensis (East and Southern Asia), H. sapiens neanderthalensis (Europe) and H. sapeins altaiensis (Southern Siberia and Cnetral Asia)," but does not explicitly indicate the creation of a new subspecies in accordance with Article 16.1 of the ICZN, nor explicitly fix a type specimen as required by Article 16.4. The text also lacks a clear differential diagnosis in accord with Article 13.1 (nomen nudum).

Zubova et al. (2017) present a morphological analysis of isolated molars (Denisova 4 and Denisvoa 8) and attribute them to the taxon Homo altaiensis, citing Derevianko, 2011, but Derevianko (2011) explicitly rejects naming a new species on p. 465, "During the preparation of the earlier article, adressing mtDNA from the hominid phalanx found in stratum 11, members of Pääbo's team considered the possibility of regarding the Deinsovans as a distinct species (Homo altaiensis)(Krause et al., 2007), but it was decided to refrain from introducing a new species. The results of the nuclear genome sequencing suggest that the Denisovans were a subspecies, which, along with others, was ancestral with regard to modern humans." Derevianko (2011) refers consistently to H. s. altaiensis at the subspecies level throught the rest of the text.

Zubova et al. use the species names Homo altaiensis (Derevianko, 2011) and Denisovan (Reich et al., 2010) interchangeably. This similarity marked the first time a taxon was classified based on a genetic analysis rather than a morphological one. Zubova et al. (2011) examined dental variation. Zubovia et al. (2011) concluded that H. altaiensis is distinct genetically and morphologically from H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis.

 

Authorship Reference
A. Derevianko
The Upper Paleolithic in Africa and Eurasia and the Origin of Anatomically Modern Humans
The Upper Paleolithic in Africa and Eurasia and the Origin of Anatomically Modern Humans, Instituteof Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS Press, Novosibirsk, Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, 2011
Homo sapiens cro-magnonensis Gregory, 1921
Details
Year: 1921
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Lectotype: Cro-Magnon
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Gregory (1921 p. 179) suggested the name Homo sapiens Crô-Magnonensis in reference to the material from Cro Magnon as well as other sites in Italy. 

Campbell (1965) listed the name as an objective junior synonym of Homo aurignacensis hauseri

Homo sapiens daliensis Wu, 1981
Details
Year: 1981
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Dali
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Wu 1981 provides a description of the Dali cranium and assigns it to the subspecies Homo sapiens daliensis. This assignment may be conditional. In the body of the publication Wu states, "It is suggested that Dali cranium probably represents a new subspecies, Homo sapiens daliensis. (p. 539)" Yet in the abstract the intent is more clear. There the author states, "The cranium differs from Neanderthals in a number of racial characteristics. It is therefore considered here a new subspecies: Homo sapiens daliensis." Multivariate analysis by Athreya and Wu (2017) indicate a mosaic pattern exhibiting derived features in the face and primitive features in the neurocranium. These authors refained from making a taxonomic determination based on these results. 

The name Homo dalienesis or Homo sapiens daliensis has not been widely invoked since its establishement. It appears in Bae (2010), Yin (2002). 

Homo sapiens idaltu White et al., 2003
Details
Year: 2003
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: BOU-VP-16/1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

White et al. (2003) described the Herto cranium from the Herto Member of the Bouri Formation of the Middle Awash Research Area and ascribed specimen BOU-VP-16/1 as the holotype to a subspecies of anatomically modern humans, Homo sapiens idaltu.

 

Homo sapiens proto-sapiens Montandon, 1943
Details
Year: 1943
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Lectotype: Swanscombe
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Montandon has Homo sapiens proto-sapiens as the subtitle for chapter IX of his 1943 book. In this chapter Mantondon describes Piltdown and Swanscombe A and B. Swanscombe C was not yet discovered. Campbell (1965) listed the name as valid and fixed Swanscombe as the lectotype. Groves (1989) listed this taxon as available and potentially valid provided the name is corrected to remove the hyphen (Article 32.5.2.3).

Authorship Reference
G. Montandon
L'homme préhistorique et les préhumains
L'homme préhistorique et les préhumains, Payot, Paris, 1943
Homo sapiens shanidarensis Senyurek, 1957
Details
Year: 1957
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Holotype: Shanidar 7
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Senyurek (1957a) described a junvenile skeleton that the author considered to be distinct from European neanderthals, Pleistocene humans, and modern humans. Senyurek ascribed this fossil to Shanidar Man. in a subsequent publication (Senyurek, 1957b) the author provided additional comparison and statistical analysis. It is at the end of the second publication (p.117) where the author wrote, “I propose to name this new Mousterian race, represented by the Shanidar infant, Homo sapiens shanidarensis, after the cave in which it was found.”

Campbell (1965) cited Senyurek (1957) as the source for the name, but referenced the first publication in the bibliography rather than the second.

Homo semiprimigenius palestinus Montandon, 1943
Details
Year: 1943
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Lectotype: Skhul 1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Montandon described fossils from Zuttyeh, Tabun, Skhul, Kafzeh as syntypes of Homo semiprimigenius palestinus. The name stems from Montandon's hypothesis that this taxon reflects hybridization between Neanderthals and modern humans. Chapter VIII concludes with,

"Il est vraisemblable que cet etre mixte (mais pluspres du Neandertalensis, tandis que le type de Brux, legerement neandertaloide tient tout de mem au Sapiens) se révélera en bien d'autres points que la Palestine. Systematiquement, ce sera soit un Homo primigenius palestinus, soit, en créant un terme spécificque pour l'échelon mixte, un Homo semiprimigenius, variete palestinus." (p. 215).

From the syntypes described, Campbell (1965), selected Skhul 1 as the lectotype. Campbell noted the name is an objective junior synonym to Palaeanthropus palestinus McCown & Keith, 1932. The name is thus available but objectively invalid.

Authorship Reference
G. Montandon
L'homme préhistorique et les préhumains
L'homme préhistorique et les préhumains, Payot, Paris, 1943
Homo spelaeus Lapouge, 1899
Details
Year: 1899
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Lectotype: Cro-Magnon
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Lapouge (1899) established the name Homo spelaeus for pre-sapiens populations of southern Europe represented by Cro Magnon. Campbell (1965) fixed the adult male skeleton from Cro Magon as the lectotype. Campbell (1965) noted the name as available and potentially valid.

Authorship Reference
G. V. Lapouge
L'aryen Son Role Social
L'Aryen; son rôle social, A. Fontemoing, Paris, 1899
Homo spyensis Krause, 1909
Details
Year: 1909
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Spy I
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Krause (1909) provided detailed anatomical description of the human skeleton and comparative analysis of fossil forms including fossils from Neanderthal, Spy and Krapina, each of which he assigned to separate species in accord with his assertion that they represented independent lineages rather than subspecies of Homo primigenius. On page 176 Krause proposed the names Homo priscus and Homo spyensis as alternate names, based on the Spy 1 specimen.

Campbell (1965) noted Homo priscus Krause, 1909 is an objectively invalid junior homonym, but that Homo spyensis is available and potentially valid.  Campbell (1965) noted the adult skeleton Spy 1 as the lectotype.

Authorship Reference
Homo steinheimensis Berckhemer, 1936
Details
Year: 1936
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Steinheim
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Berckhemer (1936) established the name Homo steinheimensis (caption to Figure 1 p. 349) for the Steinheim skull and provided description and comparison to neanderthals and modern humans.

Campbell (1965) noted Homo steinheimensis Berckhemer, 1936 as available and potentially valid.

Authorship Reference
Homo sungirensis Zubova, 2000
Details
Year: 2000
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Sunghir 2
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Zubova (2000) established Homo sungirensis based on the juvenile remains of Sungir 2 with Sungir 3 as a paratype.

Authorship Reference
A. A. Zubov
Morphological study of children's teeth from the Sungir burial (Sungir-2, Sungir-3)
Homo sungirensis. Upper Palaeolithic Man: Ecological and Evolutionary Aspects of the Investigation, Scientific World, Moscow, 2000
Homo swanscombensis Kennard, 1942
Details
Year: 1942
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Lectotype: Swanscombe
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Nomen nudum
Remarks

Kennard (1942) is a brief caption that mentions Homo swanscombensis but does not provide a differential diagnosis; it is nomen nudem and thus unavailable.

Authorship Reference
A. S. Kennard
Faunas of the high terrace at Swanscombe
Proceedings of the Geological Association, 53, 105, 1942
Homo tirolensis Ambach et al., 1992
Details
Year: 1994
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Hauslabjoch 1
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Conditionally proposed
Remarks

Ambach et al. (1992) invoked the name Homo tirolensis in a brief description about the find and indicate that the name is given provisionally. Lubec et al. (1994) also invoke the name in their report on aminio acid racimation dating of the specimen. They too indicate the name is provisional. Given the provisional designation and the lack of description or a differential diagnosis in either publication the name is conditionally proposed and nomen nudem and thus unavailable.  Furthermore, the nomen is a junior primary homonym to Homo alpinus tirolensis Frizzi, 1909.

Homo transprimigenius mousteriensis Forrer, 1908
Details
Year: 1908
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Le Moustier 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Forrer (1908, p. 53) established the name Homo transprimigenious mousteriensis with Le Mousterier as the type specimen. Forrer (1908) provided a brief descriptioin of Le Mousterir in comparision to specimens from Trinil and to Neanderthal and Spy. He interpreted Le Mousterier as being intermediate between Trinil and later Neanderthals.

Forrer (1908 p. 55) acknowledged the name Homo mousteriensis hauseri proposed by Klaatsch in a newspaper article in the 'frankfurter Zeitung' that first announced the discovery of Le Mousterier. It seems this article, or its mention by Forrer would serve to establish Homo mousteriensis hauseri Klaatsch, before Homo transprimigenius mousteriensis Forrer.  Determining which name has priority requires further investigation. For now, priority is given to Homo transprimigenius mousteriensis Forrer, 1908, following the lead of Campbell (1965).

Campbell (1965) and Groves both noted that Forrer (1908) established Homo transprimigenius mousteriensis based on Le Moustier.

 

Authorship Reference
R. Forrer
Urgeschichte des Europäers
Urgeschichte des Europäers, Jm Verlag and W. Spemman, Berlin and Stuttgart, 1908
Homo trinilis Alsberg, 1922
Details
Year: 1922
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Trinil 2
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Alsberg (1922 p. 165) established the name Homo trinilis. Campbell (1965) listed this name as an objective junior synonym, thus available but invalid.

Authorship Reference
P. Alsberg
Pithecanthropus erectus --- Homo Trinilis
Z. Morphol. Anthropol., 25(2), 165-170, 1925
Homo tsaichangensis McMenamin
Details
Year: 2015
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: F051911
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Improperly published
Remarks

Chang et al. (2015) described a partial mandible, Penghu 1, purchased from an antique dealer in Taiwan. The specimen was originally recovered by a fishing boat dredging the Penghu Straits off the coast of Taiwan. Similar vertebrate fauna recovered from the straits suggested a Pleistocene age. Chang et al. attributed the specimen to Homo sp. indet. 

McMenamin (2015), in what appears to be a self-published, 12-page book, proposed the name Homo tsaichangensis with the Penghu 1 mandible as holotype. It is not clear that print versions of the book were ever widely available in a manner that would fulfil the condition for numerous identical and durable copies set out in Article 8.1.3.1. It is available as a pdf online. The work is registered with Zoobank but the published work does not contain evidence that the name is so registered as required by Articles 8.5.3.1 and 8.5.3.2. For these reasons we list the name as unavailable.

Authorship Reference
M. McMenamin
Homo tsaichangensis and Gigantopithecus
Homo tsaichangensis and Gigantopithecus, Meanma Press, 2015, ISBN 978-1-893882-19-5
Homo wadjakensis Dubois, 1921
Details
Year: 1921
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Lectotype: Wajak 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Dubois (1921) established Homo wadjakensis with extensive description of remains from Wadjak, Indonesia includeing an adult cranium (Wadjak I) and a mandible (Wadjak II). The first fossil specimen was discovered in East Asia in 1888 by Mr. B.D. Van Rietschoten during marble prospecting mission. Remains given to Dubois who delayed publication till 1921.

Campbell (1965) listed the name as available and potentially valid, with the adult female cranium as the lectotype. Oakley, Campbell and Page (1975) listed Wadjak 1 skeleton as holotype.

Groves (1989 p. 291) listed Homo wadjakensis Dubois, 1921as an available junior subjective synonym of Homo sapiens cf. sapiens.
 

 

Authorship Reference
E. Dubois
The proto-Australian fossil man of Wadjak, Java
Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen Proceedings Series B Physical Sciences, 23, 1013-1051, 1921
https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1921KNAB...23.1013D
Hylobates giganteus Bumuller, 1899
Details
Year: 1899
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Trinil 2
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Campbell (1965) listed this taxon as an objective junior synonym for Pithecanthropus erectus Dubois, 1894.

Authorship Reference
J. Bumuller
Das menschliche Femur nebst Beitragen zur Kenntnis der Affen-femura
Das menschliche Femur nebst Beitragen zur Kenntnis der Affen-femura, 12, 124-138, 1899
Hylobates gigas Krause, 1909
Details
Year: 1909
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Trinil 2
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Krause (1909) provided detailed anatomical description of the human skeleton and comparative analysis of fossil forms including fossils from Neanderthal, Spy and Krapina, each of which he assigned to separate species in accord with his assertion that they each represented independent lineages rather than subspecies of Homo primigenius.

Krause (1909) discussed his opinion that the Trinil material is a gibbon, Hylobates gigas. Specifically, he wrote (p. 176), 

“Die gemeinschaftlichen Vorfahren des Menschen und Affen, die zuweilen als kletternde Primaten bezeichnet werden, liegen im Eocan begraben. Pithecanthropus hingegen ist ein grosser Affe, Hylobates gigas, der mit der direkten Vorfahrenreihe des Menschen nichts zu tun hat, selbst wenn er sekundar das aufrechte Gehen gelernt hatte.”

The section above loosely translates to, 
The common ancestors of humans and apes, sometimes referred to as climbing primates, are buried in the Eocan. Pithecanthropus, on the other hand, is a great ape, Hylobates gigas, which has nothing to do with the direct line of human ancestors, even if it had learned to walk upright as a secondary step. 

Campbell (1965) noted that Hylobates gigas based as it is on Trinil 2, is an available though objectively invalid junior synonym to Pithecanthropus erectus.

Authorship Reference
Javanthropus Oppenoorth, 1932
Details
Year: 1932
Taxonomic Rank: Subgenus
Holotype: Ngandong 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks
No remarks available.
Authorship Reference
Oppenoorth and W. F. F.
Homo (Javanthropus) soloensis. Ein plistocene mensch van Java.
Wetenschappelijke mededeelingen, 20, 49-75, 1932
Kenyanthropus Leakey et al., 2001
Details
Year: 2001
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: KNM-WT 40000
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Leakey et al. established this genus with Kenyanthropus platyops as the type species.

Kenyanthropus platyops Leakey et al., 2001
Details
Year: 2001
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: KNM-WT 40000
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Leakey et al. (2001) establish a new genus and species, Kenyanthropus platyops,with KNM-WT 40000 as the holotype. Spoor et al. (2010) includes a quantitative analysis that found that K. platyops to be metrically distinct from contemporaneous Australopithecus and Paranthropus species.

This taxon is not widely utilized. It appears in rougly 10 article in the past 50 years.

Maueranthropus Montandon, 1943
Details
Year: 1943
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: Mauer 1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Montandon (1943) established a new genus, Maueranthropus heidelbergensis (Schoetensack, 1908) Mantondon, 1943. Campbell (1965) listed the taxon as an available objective junior synonym to the genus Palaeanthropus heidelbergensis (Schoetensack, 1908) Bonarelli, 1909 as both share heidelbergensis as the type species.

Authorship Reference
G. Montandon
L'homme préhistorique et les préhumains
L'homme préhistorique et les préhumains, Payot, Paris, 1943
Meganthropus von Koenigswald (in Weidenreich, 1945)
Details
Year: 1944
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Lectotype: Sangiran 6
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Weidenreich (1944) established Meganthropus with Meganthrpus palaeojavanicus as the type species, which in turn is based on Sangiran 6 as the type specimen. 

Authorship Reference
Meganthropus africanus Weinert, 1950
Details
Year: 1950
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Garusi I
Status: Suppressed
Remark:  
Remarks

Weinert (1950, p. 139) established the name Meganthropus africanus for the Garusi I maxilla, based on similarities with forms of Meganthropus from Indonesia. Later, Johanson, White & Coppens (1978) erected Australopithecus afarensis and included Garusi 1 in the hypodigm. Johanson et al. (1978) considered the Garusi 1 specimen to belong to the genus Australopithecus and thus could not transfer Weinert’s name “africanus” without creating a homonym. For that reason, they established the new species name “afarensis”.

Groves (1996) formally requested that the ICZN suppress the name Meganthropus africanus and grant priority to Australopithecus afarensis. This appeal was made in case number 2998, with comments from White et al. (1998) and approved by ICZN in 1999 as opinion number 1941. In their final opinion, the ICZN ruled that the name africanus Weinert 1950 is formally suppressed for the purposes of the Principle of Priority but not for those of the Principle of Homonymy. The same ruling also acknowledged the name afarensis, Johanson 1978 with the specimens L.H. 4 as the lectotype. Groves (1999) reviews the nomenclatural history.

See entry for Australopithecus afarensis.

Authorship Reference
H. Weinert
Über die neuen Vor- und Frühmenschenfunde aus Afrika, Java, China, und Frankreich
Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie, 42, 138-148, 1950
Meganthropus palaeojavanicus von Koenigswald, 1944 (in Weidenreich, 1944)
Details
Year: 1944
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Lectotype: Sangiran 6
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Weidenreich (1944) writing on behalf of von Koenigswald due to the loss of communication stemming from the Japanese occupation of Java related several discoveries from Java including the "1937" mandible, the "1939" mandible and the "1941" mandible (= Sangiran 6 = Meganthrpus A). The latter he indicated was the holotype for Meganthropus palaeojavanicus von Koenigswald, 1944.

Weidenreich (1944 p. 480) wrote, "Von Koenigswald, recognizing at once the human character of the fragment and, of course, also its gigantic proportions, gave the type the name Meganthropus palaeojavanicus. So far we have no other word from von Koenigswald, but by labelling the specimen in this way he makes known that he con- siders the type represented by the jaw as a giant hominid different from Pithecanthropus." 

Given this statement, and the prior anatomical comparisons included in this publication it seems Weidenreich (1944) is sufficient to establish the name and its attribution to von Koenigswald.

Von Koenigwald (1945) further described the new species.

Robinson (1954 p. 198) moved the species to Paranthropus palaeojavanicus

Campbell (1965) listed 1945 and 1950 as the authorship years though the Weidenreich Science paper was published in 1944. Campbell (1965) listed Meganthrpus palaeojavanics as available and valid, with the 1941 mandible as a lectotype.

Lovejoy (1970) provided a summary of the taxonomic status of Meganthropus.  

Groves (1989 p. 201, 281) listed Meganthropus palaeojavanicus Weidenreich, 1944 as a subjective juniorn synonym for Homo erectus erectus. He indicated Sangiran 6 = Meganthropus A as the type

Authorship Reference
Metanthropus Sollas, 1933
Details
Year: 1933
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: Neanderthal 1
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Lacks type specimen or species
Remarks

Sollas (1933) suggested the genus name Metanthrpus for neanderthals based on morphometrics of sagital sections, however in this nomenclatural act Sollas did not indicate a type species which is required under the ICZN for publications after 1930. The name is thus unavailable.

Authorship Reference
W. J. Sollas
The Sagittal Section of the Human Skull
The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 63, 389-431, 1933
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2843798
Nipponanthropus Hasebe, 1948
Details
Year: 1948
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: Nishiyagi 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Hasabe (1948) establsihed the genus Nipponanthropus with a single species N. akashiensis, based on an innominate recovered from Nishiyagi, northern Japan.

Groves (1989) listed Nipponanthropus as an available subjective junior synonym of Homo.

Authorship Reference
Nipponanthropus akashiensis Hasebe, 1948
Details
Year: 1948
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Nishiyagi 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Hasebe (1948) established Nipponanthropus akashiensis based on an innominate recovered from Nishiyagi, northern Japan.

Campbell (1965) misspelled the species epithet as 'akasiensis'. This misspelling is repeated in Groves (1989). Campbell (1965) and Groves (1989) both list the taxon as available and valid.

Tamburello (1957) provides a brief history of fossils from Japan including this taxon. Watanabe (1970) provides a review of the find.

Authorship Reference
Notanthropus Sergi, 1911
Details
Year: 1911
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
No type specimen details available.
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Sergi (1911 p. 86) established the genus Notanthropus based on the type species Notanthropus eurafricanus. The species is further subdivided into two subspecies, N. e. archaeicus and N. e. recens.

Authorship Reference
G. Sergi
L'uomo secondo le origine, l'antichita, le variazioni e la distribuzione geografica
L'uomo secondo le origine, l'antichita, le variazioni e la distribuzione geografica, Bib. di Scienze Moderne, F. Bocca, Milano, 1911
https://archive.org/details/SergiUomoSecondoLeOrigini/page/24/mode/2up?q=Palaeanthropus+krapiniensis
Notanthropus eurafricanus Sergi, 1911
Details
Year: 1911
Taxonomic Rank: Species
No type specimen details available.
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Sergi (1911 p. 87) established Notanthropus eurafricanus with two subspecies, recens and archaicus. Sergi (1911) established these taxa with several syntypes, most of which were destroyed in 1944. Campbell (1965) fixed Combe-Capelle as the lectotype for recens and Predmosti as the lectotype for archaicus. For details see entries for subspecies.

Authorship Reference
G. Sergi
L'uomo secondo le origine, l'antichita, le variazioni e la distribuzione geografica
L'uomo secondo le origine, l'antichita, le variazioni e la distribuzione geografica, Bib. di Scienze Moderne, F. Bocca, Milano, 1911
https://archive.org/details/SergiUomoSecondoLeOrigini/page/24/mode/2up?q=Palaeanthropus+krapiniensis
Notanthropus eurafricanus archaicus Sergi, 1911
Details
Year: 1911
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Predmost 21
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Sergi (1911) established Notanthropus eurafricanus archaicus based on specimens from Galley-Hill, Brunn, Egisheim and Predmost. 
Campbell (1965) fixed Predmost XXI, as described in Matiegka (1938) as the lectotype and noted that most specimens from Predmost were destroyed in 1944. 

Campbell (1965) contains a misspelling, showing "archaius" instead of "archaicus", as it appears in Sergi (1911). This typographical error continues through in Groves (1989).

Authorship Reference
G. Sergi
L'uomo secondo le origine, l'antichita, le variazioni e la distribuzione geografica
L'uomo secondo le origine, l'antichita, le variazioni e la distribuzione geografica, Bib. di Scienze Moderne, F. Bocca, Milano, 1911
https://archive.org/details/SergiUomoSecondoLeOrigini/page/24/mode/2up?q=Palaeanthropus+krapiniensis
Notanthropus eurafricanus recens Sergi, 1911
Details
Year: 1911
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Combe Capelle
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Sergi (1911) listed seven syntypes for Notanthropus eurafricanus recens (Chancelade, Combe Capelle, ...). Campbell (1965) designates Combe Capelle as the lectotype for N. euraficanus recens Sergi, 1911. In this designation it is an objective junior synonym to the older nomen, Homo aurignacensis hauseri, Klaatsch and Hauser, 1910.

Authorship Reference
G. Sergi
L'uomo secondo le origine, l'antichita, le variazioni e la distribuzione geografica
L'uomo secondo le origine, l'antichita, le variazioni e la distribuzione geografica, Bib. di Scienze Moderne, F. Bocca, Milano, 1911
https://archive.org/details/SergiUomoSecondoLeOrigini/page/24/mode/2up?q=Palaeanthropus+krapiniensis
Orrorin Senut et al., 2001
Details
Year: 2001
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: BAR 1000'00
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Senut et al (2001) established this genus to with Orrorin tugenensis as the type species.

Authorship Reference
B. Senut , M. Pickford , D. Gommery , P. Mein , K. Cheboi , and Y. Coppens
First hominid from the Miocene (Lukeino Formation, Kenya)
Comptes Rendus de l'Acad\'emie des Sciences - Series IIA - Earth and Planetary Science, 332(2), 137-144, 2001
Orrorin tugenensis Senut et al., 2001
Details
Year: 2001
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: BAR 1000'00
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Senut et al. (2001) established the a new genus and species, Orrorin tugenens, with BAR 1000'00 as the holotype.

Authorship Reference
B. Senut , M. Pickford , D. Gommery , P. Mein , K. Cheboi , and Y. Coppens
First hominid from the Miocene (Lukeino Formation, Kenya)
Comptes Rendus de l'Acad\'emie des Sciences - Series IIA - Earth and Planetary Science, 332(2), 137-144, 2001
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1251-8050(01)01529-4
Palaeanthropus Bonareli, 1909
Details
Year: 1909
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: Mauer 1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Bonarelli (1909) established a new genus, Palaeanthropus heidelbergensis (Schoetensack, 1908) Bonerelli, 1909 for the species Homo heidelbergensis Schoetensack, 1908. Campbell (1965) listed the name as an available objective junior synonym to Homo heidelbergensis.

Authorship Reference
G. Bonarelli
Palaeanthropus (ng) Heidelbergensis (Schoet.)
Riv. Ital. Paleontol., 15, 26-31, 1909
Palaeanthropus europeus Sergi, 1910
Details
Year: 1910
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Neanderthal 1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Sergi (1910 p. 472) established Palaeanthropus europeus with the type specimen series Neanderthal-Spy-Krapina. Campbell (1965) lists the name as an available, objective junior synonym to Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864. The nomen 'europeus' is also a secondary junior homonym to Homo europeus Wilser 1898 if the two species are placed in the same genus.

Authorship Reference
G. Sergi
Paléontologie sud-américaine
Scientia, 8, 465-475, 1910
Palaeanthropus krapiniensis Sergi, 1911
Details
Year: 1911
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Krapina 5
Status: Invalid
Remark: Homonym
Remarks

Sergi (1911) established the name Palaeanthropus krapinensis based on "Krapina A" as the holotype. The species epithet 'krapiniensis' is a homonym with Homo neanderthalensis var. krapinensis Grojanovic-Kramberger, 1902. Campbell (1965) noted that the slight difference in spelling between 'krapinensis' and 'krapiniensis' is not sufficient to designate a new name. Also, as noted by Campbell (1965) Grojanovic-Kramberger used the latter spelling in 1910. Campbell also noted that Sergi first used the name krapinensis in 1910 but without reference to a type.

Authorship Reference
G. Sergi
L'uomo secondo le origine, l'antichita, le variazioni e la distribuzione geografica
L'uomo secondo le origine, l'antichita, le variazioni e la distribuzione geografica, Bib. di Scienze Moderne, F. Bocca, Milano, 1911
https://archive.org/details/SergiUomoSecondoLeOrigini/page/24/mode/2up?q=Palaeanthropus+krapiniensis
Palaeanthropus palestinensis Weidenreich, 1932
Details
Year: 1932
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Lectotype: Skhul 1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

As summarized in Campbell (1965), McCown and Keith reported on the Skhul 1 skull as Palaeanthropus palestinus during a podium presentation at Cambridge in 1932, which was subsequently published in 1934 (so 1932 is the year for establishing priority). In the presentation special characteristics of the Skhul 1 skull were described, and, according to Campbell, the paper "constituted a valid description for the purposes of Article 13." The adult skeletons were only mentioned but not described. Weidenreich was at the converence and he published a report later that same years (1932). In his report Weidenreich refers to Palaeanthropus palestinensis (note the difference in spelling) and attriubtes the name to McCown and Keith. Campbell (1965) considers the Weidenreich nomen an incorrect spelling and the McCown and Keith spelling, as used in 1932 and in subsequent publication, as a valid emendation. 

Palaeanthropus palestinus McCown & Keith, 1932
Details
Year: 1932
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Lectotype: Skhul 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

McCown and Keith (1934) is an abstract related to a 1932 conference in which McCown and Keith proposed the name Palaeanthropus palestinus and during the talk provides sufficient anatomical description and comparison to warrant authorship of the name according to Campbell (1965).

Weidenreich attended the conference at which McCown and Keith proposed the name, and Weidenreich (1932) subsequently published a report attributing Palaeanthropus palestinensis (note difference in spelliing) to McCown and Keith.

Campbell (1965) noted that McCown and Keith treated the material from Zuttiyeh and Skhul as syntypes. Campbell (1965) designates Skhul 1 as the lectotype.

Groves (1989) recognizes P. palestinus McCown and Keith, 1934 as available and potentially valid.

Authorship Reference
T. D. McCown and A. Keith
Palaeanthropus palestinus
Proceedings of the 1st International Congress of Prehistory and Protohistory society (London 1932), London., 1, 48, 1934
Palaeoanthropus njarasensis Reck & Kohl-Larsen, 1936
Details
Year: 1936
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Eyasi 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Reck and Kohl-Larsen (1936 p. 429) established Palaeoanthropus njarasensis. Reck and Kohl-Larsen use the spelling Palaeoanthropus njarasensis. Campbell (1965) considers it an incorrect subsequent spelling (ISS) of Palaeanthropus Bonarelli, 1909. 

Paranthropus Broom, 1938
Details
Year: 1938
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: TM 1517
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Broom (1938) established the genus Paranthropus with type species Paranthropus robustus based on the holotype TM 1517. 

Paranthropus crassidens Broom, 1949
Details
Year: 1949
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: SK 6
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Broom (1949) proposes the name Paranthrpus crassidens for holotype specimen SK 6 from Swartkranks. This nomen is now widely considered subjective junior synonym of Paranthropus robustus.

Paranthropus robustus Broom, 1938
Details
Year: 1938
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: TM 1517
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Described by Robert Broom (1938), Paranthropus robustus was proposed with TM 1517 as the holotypye. 

Paraustralopithecus Arambourg & Coppens 1967
Details
Year: 1967
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: OMO 18-1967-18
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Arambourg and Coppens (1967) provided the first announcement of a newly discovered mandible, designated Omo 18-1967-18 to which the authors established the new genus and species Paraustralopithecus aeithipicus. The 1967 announcement proposed the name provisionally. Specifically they write ,"Nous le désignerons provisoirement sous le nom de Paraustralopithecus aethiopicus nov. gen. nov. sp." (p. 590). Yet, a footnote indicates that the fossil and name were formally registered with the French academy. This action would indicate a definitive proposal and thus 1967 is the year of authorship.

Arambourg and Coppens (1968) reerence the name unconditionally and refer to it in the past tense further indicating 1967 as the year of authorship.  See entry for Paraustralpithecus aethiopicus.

Authorship Reference
Paraustralopithecus aethiopicus Arambourg & Coppens, 1967
Details
Year: 1967
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: OMO 18-1967-18
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Arambourg and Coppens (1967) is the publication that first proposed Omo 18-1967-18 as the holotype specimen for the new genus and species, Paraustralopithecus aethiopicus.  This 1967 publication included an iimage, description and measurements. Arambourg and Coppens (1968) provided additional description and measurements of the holotype along with a fuller differential diagnosis.

Groves (1989) suggested that Arambourg and Coppens (1967) proposed the new name conditionally, and that the 1968 publication is the one that established the name. Indeeed Arambourg and Coppens (1967) ended with, "Nous le désignerons provisoirement sous le nom de Paraustralopithecus aethiopicus nov. gen., nov. sp." (p. 590), which certainly indicates a provisional assignment. However the relevant section of the Code (Article 15) refers to conditional propsoals, i.e. those that are made with "stated reservations" (ICZN Glossary) and it is not clear that the 1967 publication expresses reservations. That publication (1967) includes a footnote indicating that a registered letter was sent to the French Academie announcing the discovery. This would suggest the discovery and the name were not proposed conditionally, or with reservations. Furthermore Arambourg and Coppens (1968) concludes with the sentence, "Nous avons désigné cette forme archaïque sous le nom de Paraustralopithecus aethiopicus." (p. ) indicating with the past tense that the name had already been assigned (in 1967). In either case the name Paraustralopithecus aethiopicus is potentially valid, and the issue is what date is appropriate.

Groves (1999) discussed additional challenges and problems surrounding the designation of the name 'aethiopicus'. 

 

Authorship Reference
Pithecanthropus Dubois, 1894
Details
Year: 1894
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: Trinil 2
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Dubois (1893; 1894) established Pithecanthropus for which the type species is Anthropopithecus erectus Dubois, 1892 with Trinil 2 as the type specimen. The 1893 work was published anonymously and thus it is the 1894 publication that bears the authorship.

Authorship Reference
E. Dubois
Pithecanthropus Erectus. Eine menschenaehnliche Uebergangsform aus Java
Pithecanthropus Erectus. Eine menschenaehnliche Uebergangsform aus Java, G.E. Stechert & Co, New York, 1894
Pithecanthropus alalus Haeckel, 1895
Details
Year: 1895
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Trinil - No Type Fixed
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Fictional
Remarks

Haeckel (1895 p. 625) alludes to a hypothetical evolutionary stage in human evolution to which he ascribes the name Pithecanthropus alalus (non-speaking ape-man). This nomen is hypothetical and thus unavailable (Article 1.3.1)

Authorship Reference
E. Haeckel
Systematische Phylogenie der Wirbeltiere (Vertebrata)
Systematische Phylogenie der Wirbeltiere (Vertebrata), Verlag von Georg Reimer, Berlin, 1895
https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/22431#page/7/mode/1up
Pithecanthropus dubius von Koenigswald, 1949
Details
Year: 1949
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Sangiran 5
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Von Koenigswald (1949 p. 110) established the name Pithecanthropus dubius to accommodate the 1939 mandibular fragment from Sangiran (Sangiran 5). Von Koenigwald wrote, "A third type, called Pithecanthropus dubius v. K. (because of his doubtful position) is represented by a jaw-fragment, found at Sangiran in 1939, the symphysis of which is different from Meganthropus (to which this jaw was originally attributed) as well as from Pithecanthropus B. The teeth show a specialized pattern."

Campbell (1965) lists this name as available and valid as does Groves (1989)

Authorship Reference
G. H. R. V. Koenigswald
The fossil hominids of Java
The Geology of Indonesia, 106-111, 1949
Pithecanthropus duboisii Morselli, 1901
Details
Year: 1901
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Trinil 2
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Morselli (1901) provided a review of the Trinil discovery and established a the replacement name Pithecanthropus duboiseii (p. 6). Campbell listed the name as an available objective juniorn synonym of Pithecanthropus erectus Dubois, 1894.

Authorship Reference
E. Morselli
Il precursore dell'Uomo: Pithecanthropus Duboisii
Il precursore dell'Uomo: Pithecanthropus Duboisii, Tipografia Fratelli Carlini fu Gio. Batta, Genova, 1901
Pithecanthropus robustus Weidenreich, 1944
Details
Year: 1944
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Sangiran 4
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Weidenreich (1944) establshed Pithecanthropus robustus based on the Sangiran calvaria and maxilla (Pithecanthropus IV). Campbell (1965) listed this taxon as available and valid, citing Weidenreich (1945). Groves (1989) ascribed authorship to Weidenreich (1944) and assigns the calvaria as the lectotype.

Authorship Reference
Pithecanthropus rudolfensis Alexeev, 1986
Details
Year: 1986
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Lectotype: KNM-ER 1470
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Richard Leakey et al. (1973) first described KNM-ER 1470, and attributed it to Homo sp. indet. based on the large endocranial volume (> 800 cc) and difference from known Australopithecus specimens. Also the associated post cranial bones, KNM-ER 1472, 1473 and 1481 did not claerly differ from modern humans. Subsequent analyses of the Homo habilis hypodigm (sensu lato) led Wood (1992) to conclude multiple species were present and he deployed the name Homo rudolfensis (Alekseev, 1986).

Alexeev (1986), in his book length treatment of the fossil record, suggested KNM-ER 1470 resembled later Homo and assigned the fossil to a new species, Pithecanthropus rudolfensis. Wood recognized the Alexeev publication as a valid nomencaltural act and considered the nomen 'rudolfensis' as available and valid, though this was contested at the time (Kennedy 1999).

Because of its status as a debated species H. rudolfensis is often referred to as a subspecies of Homo habilis though arguments have been made that it may also be subsumed into Australopithecus, as Australopithecus rudolfensis (Wood and Collard 1999). This discourse comes from the australopithecine features H. rudolfensis retained in contrast with the early Homo characteristics presented in its body plan (McHenry and Coffing, 2000). 

Aiello and Collard (2001) invoked the nomen as Kenyanthropus rudolfensis.

The name 'rudolfensis' is widely established and actively used with ca 60 citations in the past 50 years by at least 10 authors, including Lieberman et al. (1996), Karl (2012), Argue et al. (2009), Wood and Baker (2011), Ungar et al (2006), Anton (2007), Prat (2007), Will and Stock (2015), Agusti (2018), Smith and Grine (2008) etc.  The name is established and actively used.

Authorship Reference
V. P. Alexeev
The Origin of the Human Race
The Origin of the Human Race, Moscow: Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1986
Pithecanthropus sinensis Weinert, 1931
Details
Year: 1931
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: K11337:3
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Weinert (1931 p.183) establsiehd Pithecanthropus sinensis based on material from Zhoukoudian. Campbell (1965) listed this name as available an available objective junior synonym of Sinanthropus pekinensis Black and Zdansky, 1927.

Authorship Reference
Plesianthropus Broom, 1938
Details
Year: 1938
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: TM 1511
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

In 1936 Broom attributed fossils from Sterkfontein to Australopithecus transvaalensis Broom, 1936. In 1938 he erected a new genus for this species, Plesianthropus transvaalensis Broom 1938. Specifically, on p. 377 Broom writes, "The shape of the symphysis is so different from that of the Taungs ape that it seems advisable to place A. transvaalensis in a distinct genus, for which the name Plesianthropus is proposed."

Praeanthropus Hennig, 1948
Details
Year: 1948
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Laetoli - No Type Fixed
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Nomen nudum
Remarks

Hennig (1948, p. 214) used Praeanthropus in reference to the Garusi maxilla but did not fix a type species (Article 13.3) nor offer a differential diagnosis for the genus (Article 13.1), which is thus nomen nudum. Senyurek (1955) employs the name and is the first accepted use of the genus.

Authorship Reference
E. Hennig
Quatarfaunen und Urgeschichte Ostafricas
Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau, 12(5), 212-217, 1948
Praeanthropus Senyürek 1955
Details
Year: 1955
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: Garusi I
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

The genus Praeanthropus was originally coined by Hennig (1948), but that name is unavailable because Hennig (1948) did not fix a type species. Senyurek (1955) argued that the Garusi I maxilla, attributed to Meganthropus africanus by Weinert (1950) belonged in a new genus and resurrected Hennig's Praeanthropus, now Praeanthropus Senyürek, 1955 with Praeanthropus africanus as the type species.

Groves (1996) petitioned the ICZN to supress the name "africanus" in favor of "afarensis" to avoid homonymy with Australopithecus africanus Dart, 1925.  See entry for Australopithecus afarensis.

Strait et al. (1997) and Strait and Grine (2004) have argued to move Australopithecus afarensis to Praeantthropus in order to reduce the paraphyly of taxa in Australopithecus. However, a full implementation of this solutioin also requires minting new generic names for Au. anamensis, Au. garhi and other australopits.

Authorship Reference
M. S. Senyürek
A note on the teeth of Meganthropus africanus Weinert from Tanganyika Territory
A note on the teeth of Meganthropus africanus Weinert from Tanganyika Territory, Türk tarih kurumu, Belletin, Istanbul, 1955
Praehomo Eikstedt, 1932
Details
Year: 1932
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: Mauer 1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Eikstedt established Praehomo heidelbergensis as a replacement genus for Homo heidelbergensis Schoetensack, 1908. Campbell (1965) listed Praehomo heidelbergensis (Scoetensack, 1908) Eikstedt, 1932 as an available objective junior synonym of Homo heidelbergensis.

Authorship Reference
Praehomo asiaticus javanensis Eickstedt, 1932
Details
Year: 1932
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Holotype: Trinil 2
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Eickstedt (1932 p. 612) provided a review of fossil discoveries and included the name Praehomo asiaticus javanensis in Table 2, refering to the Trinil discoveries.

Campbell (1965) listed this taxon as an objective junior synonym to Pithecanthropus erectus Dubois, 1894. Groves (1989) listed this name as an available junior synonym of Homo erectus. According to Groves (1989) no type is fixed by Eickstedt (1932).

Authorship Reference
Praehomo asiaticus sinensis Eickstedt, 1932
Details
Year: 1932
Taxonomic Rank: Subspecies
Holotype: K11337:3
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Eikstedt (1932) establshed the name Praehommo asiaticus sinensis. Campbell (1965) and Groves (1989) each listed this name as an available objective junior synonym to Sinanthropus pekinensis Black and Zdansky, 1927. It also appears to be a junior homonym to Pithecanthropus sinensis Weinert, 1931.

Authorship Reference
Praehomo europaeus Eikstedt, 1932
Details
Year: 1932
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Mauer 1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Eickstadt (1932 p. 612) established Praehomo europaeus and Praehomo heidelbergensis.  Campbell (1965) listed Praehomo euopaeus as establsiehd in a later publication (Eickhardt, 1934) but the name appears in the 1932 paper as well.

Authorship Reference
Proanthropus Wilser, 1900
Details
Year: 1900
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: Trinil 2
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Wilser (1900 p. 575) expressed his disapproval with the genus name Ptheecanthropus that Dubois establsihed for Trinil. Wilser (1900) indicated he would have preferred the name Proanthropus. Specifically Wilser (1900 p.575) states, "Ich halte deshalb auch die Wahl des Namens Pithecanthropus nicht fur die glucklichste und wurde Proanthropus vorgezogen haben." Which roughly translates to "I therefore do not consider the choice of the name Pithecanthropus to be the best and would have preferred Proanthropus."  Based on this, the name Proanthropus is proposed conditionally. Becaise it is proposed before 1961 it is available (Article 15) but objectively invalid as a junior synonym to Pithecanthropus.

Authorship Reference
L. Wilser
Der Pithecanthropus erectus und die Abstammung des Menschen
Verhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Karlsruhe, 13, 551-576, 1900
Protanthropus Haeckel, 1895
Details
Year: 1895
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: Neanderthal 1
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Nomen nudum
Remarks

Haeckel (1895 p. 631-632) introduced the genus Protanthropus. Haeckel does not provide a morphological desciription. The name is thus nomen nudum. See Protanthropus atavus Haeckel, 1895.

Authorship Reference
E. Haeckel
Systematische Phylogenie der Wirbeltiere (Vertebrata)
Systematische Phylogenie der Wirbeltiere (Vertebrata), Verlag von Georg Reimer, Berlin, 1895
https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/22431#page/7/mode/1up
Protanthropus Arldt, 1915
Details
Year: 1915
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: Mauer 1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Arldt (1915) established Protanthropus heidelbergensis for the Mauer mandible. Cambpell (1965) listed the species as an objective junior synonym of Homo heidelbergensis Schoetensack, 1908.

Authorship Reference
Protanthropus atavus Haeckel, 1895
Details
Year: 1895
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: Neanderthal 1
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Nomen nudum
Remarks

Haeckel (1895 p. 631-632) introduced the name Protanthropus atavus as a stage in human evolution following Pithecanthropus erectus, representing "primitive speaking man" of the Diluvial period, i.e. Pleistocene. Haeckel does not provide a morphological desciription. The name is thus nomen nudum.

Campbell (1965) listed Protanthropus atavus as an objective junior synonym of Homo neanderthalensis and indicates the name is nomen nudum.

Groves (1989) listed Protanthropus atavus Haeckel, 1895 as an available junior synonym of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis.

Authorship Reference
E. Haeckel
Systematische Phylogenie der Wirbeltiere (Vertebrata)
Systematische Phylogenie der Wirbeltiere (Vertebrata), Verlag von Georg Reimer, Berlin, 1895
https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/22431#page/7/mode/1up
Protanthropus tabunensis Bonarelli, 1944
Details
Year: 1944
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Tabun - No Type Fixed
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Nomen nudum
Remarks

Bonarelli proposed the name Protanthropus tabunensis for the material from Tabun Cave, but he does not fix a type specimen nor provide descriptions of the material, and thus, the name is nomen nudum.

Campbell (1965) and Groves (1989) both listed the taxon as nomen nudum.

Pseudhomo Ameghino, 1909
Details
Year: 1908
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: Mauer 1
Status: Invalid
Remark: Objective synonym
Remarks

Campbell (1965) listed Pseudohomo heidelbergensis as an available objective junior synonym for Homo heidelbergensis Schoetensack, 1908.

Authorship Reference
Sahelanthropus Brunet et al., 2002
Details
Year: 2002
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: TM 266-01-060-1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Brunet et al. (2002) established this genus with type species Sahelanthropus tchadensis based on TM 266-02-060-1 as the holotype.

Sahelanthropus tchadensis Brunet et al., 2002
Details
Year: 2002
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: TM 266-01-060-1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Brunet et al. (2002) established a new species and genus, Sahelanthropus tchadensis, for the Tumai fossil TM 266-01-060-1. Debate has focused on whether this taxon denotes and early member of the hominin lineage or a member of a different, great ape lineage (Wolpoff et al. 2002).

 

Sinanthropus Black and Zdansky
Details
Year: 1927
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: K11337:3
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Black (1927) establishes the genus Sinanthropus for the species Sinanthropus pekinensis. Black (1927) attributes the species name to Black and Zdansky. Here we apply the same to the genus. Campbell (1965) lists Sinanthropus pekinensis as available and potentially-valid.

Authorship Reference
D. Black
On a lower molar hominid from the Chou Kou Tien deposit
Palaeontologia Sinica, 7(1), 1-26, 1927
Sinanthropus (Pithecanthropus?) pekingensis Hennig, 1932
Details
Year: 1932
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Zhoukoudian - No Type Fixed
Status: Invalid
Remark: Homonym
Remarks

Hennig (1932, p. 135) proposed Sinanthropus (Pithecanthropus?) pekingensis based on material from Zhoukoutien. Campbell (1965) listed this name as a primary junior homonym of Sinanthropus pekinensis  Black and Zdansky, 1927. Campbell (1965) remarks that the slight differences in spelling amount to an incorrect subsequent spelling (ISS) and the names 'pekinensis' and 'pekingensis' should be treated as homonyms (rather than synonyms) as directed under Article 33.3.

Authorship Reference
E. Hennig
Fortschritte der Altsteinzeit-Forchung in der Alten Welt
Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen, 78, 134-137, 1932
Sinanthropus lantianensis Woo, 1965
Details
Year: 1965
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: PA 102, Lantian 1
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Woo (1964) established the name Sinanthropus lantianensis with the Lantian 1 mandible as the holotype. Groves (1989) notes that Wu (1964) proposed the name conditionally (provisionally) and thus the Wu (1965) publication established the name. In this later publication the name is applied to both the mandible and cranium though they derive form different contexts and are not associated. Groves (1989) established the mandible as the lectotype for the name established in Wu (1965)

Sinanthropus officinalis von Koenigswald, 1952
Details
Year: 1952
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: CA 770
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

von Koenigswald 1952 established the name Sinanthropus officinalis based on an isolated molar (CA 770) as the holotype. Campbell (1965) listed Sinanthropus officinalis as available. Smith (2018 et al.) reanalyze the von Koenigswald apothecary samples and ascribe CA 770 to Homo erectus.

Sinanthropus pekinensis Black and Zdansky, 1927
Details
Year: 1927
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: K11337:3
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Black (1927 p. 21) established Sinanthropus pekinensis based on an isolated molar tooth from Level 1. The paper attributed authorship of the taxon jointly to Black & Zdansky.

Campbell (1965) listed Sinanthropus pekinensis Black & Zdansky, 1927 (in Black, 1927) as an available and potentially-valid taxon. Campbell (1965) described the type specimen as a lower left molar.

Groves (1989) listed Sinanthropus as a junior synonym of Homo, and Homo erectus pekinensis Black, 1927 as an available, valid taxon. Goves described the type just as "Molar tooth". (p. 282). Groves attributed authorship to Black alone, but as noted above, it should be attrbuted jointly to Black and Zdansky.

Zanolli et al. (2018) described the ?type specimen PMU M3550. They refer to this specimen as the type of Sinanthropus pekinensis, however M3550 is an upper molar and the tooth imaged in Plate II of Black (1927) is a lower.  Further work is needed to confirm the catalog number of type specimen.

Authorship Reference
D. Black
On a lower molar hominid from the Chou Kou Tien deposit
Palaeontologia Sinica, 7(1), 1-26, 1927
Tchadensis uxoris Coppens, 1965
Details
Year: 1965
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: KT Yayo
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Conditionally proposed
Remarks

Coppens (1965) proposed Tchadensis uxoris with the Yayo fragmentary cranium as the type specimen. Coppens's text reads "Un certain nombre de caractères particuliers que cette Note a pour poropos de souligner, nous a décidé, dans la tradition, à lui donner génériquement et spécifiquement un nome provisoire; nous sommes parfaitement conscient de sa précarité et persuadé que le nombre croissant de fossiles humains mis au jour permettra bientot d'alléger et de simplifier la taxonomie mais, en attendant ces éclaircissements et un diagnose du genre paléontologique Homo , l'Hominien du Tchad s'appellera Tchadanthrpus uxoris." p. 2869.

This passage roughly translates to:

"A certain number of particular characteristics that this Note aims to underscore, we have decided, as is common practice, to give it  provisional generic and specific names; We are perfectly aware of its precariousness and convinced that the growing number of human fossils unearthed will soon permit us to unburden and simplify the taxonomy but, while awaiting these clarifications and a diagnosis of the paleontological genus Homo, the Hominian of Chad will be called Tchadanthrpus uxoris."

The reference to a provisional name led Campbell (1965) and Groves (1989) to designate the name as unavailable under Article 15.

Authorship Reference
Y. Coppens
L'Hominien du Tchad
Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, 260(3), 2869-2871, 1965
https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k4018j/f518.item
Telanthropus Broom and Robinson 1949
Details
Year: 1949
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: SK 15
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Material from Swartkrans Members 1-3 were referred by Broom and Robinson (1949) to Telanthropus capensis with the mandible SK 15 as the holotype. 

Authorship Reference
Telanthropus capensis Broom and Robinson, 1949
Details
Year: 1949
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: SK 15
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Material from Swartkrans Members 1-3 were referred by Broom and Robinson (1949) to Telanthropus capensis with the mandible SK 15 as the holotype. Others have referred this material to a variety of Homo taxa including Homo habilis (Curnoe, 2006) and Homo erectus (Olson 1978; Anton, 2003). Campbell (1965) listed this taxon as available and valid.

Authorship Reference
Zinjanthropus Leakey, 1959
Details
Year: 1959
Taxonomic Rank: Genus
Holotype: OH 5
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Leakey (1959) establsihed the genus Zinjanthropus with Zinjanthropus boisei as the type species. See Zinjanthropus boisei for further details.

Zinjanthropus boisei Leakey, 1959
Details
Year: 1959
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: OH 5
Status: Potentially valid
Remark:  
Remarks

Leakey 1959 established Zinjanthropus boisei based on the holotype OH 5. The species name 'boisei' is widely used and accepted but most place the species in the genus Paranthropus (e.g. Suwa et al. 1997; Wood and Constantino, 2007; Maclatchey et al. 2010) or Australopithecus (e.g. Lockey et al. 2020).

 

lothagamensis Bonde & Westergaard, 2004
Details
Year: 2004
Taxonomic Rank: Species
Holotype: KNM-LT 329
Status: Unavailable
Remark: Improperly formed
Remarks

Bonde and Westergaard proposed lothagamensis as a "least inclusive taxonomic unit" (LITU) in a cladistic (non-Linnaen) classification. Bonde 2011 referenced this taxon as lothagamensis. In neither case is it presented in Linnaean binomial form, hence it is unavailable (Article 5).

Africa-Boskop: Boskop 1
Homo capensis Broom, 1917  | Status: Potentially valid
Homo sapiens Boskop Gregory, 1921  | Status: Unavailable
Africa-Cape Flats: Cape Flats
Homo australoideus africanus Drennan, 1929  | Status: Invalid
Homo drennani Kleinschmidt, 1931  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Dinaledi Chamber: DH1
Homo naledi Berger et al., 2015  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-East Turkana: KNM-ER 3733
Homo kenyaensis Zeitoun, 2000  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-East Turkana: KNM-ER 1813
Homo microcranous Ferguson 1995  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-East Turkana: KNM-ER 992
Homo ergaster Groves and Mazák, 1975  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-East Turkana: KNM-ER 1470
Pithecanthropus rudolfensis Alexeev, 1986  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-East Turkana: KNM-ER 3883
Homo otokensis Zeitoun, 2000  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Elandsfontein: SAM-PQ-EH 1
Homo saldanensis Drennan, 1955  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Eyasi: Eyasi 1
Palaeoanthropus njarasensis Reck & Kohl-Larsen, 1936  | Status: Potentially valid
Africanthropus Weinert, 1938  | Status: Invalid
Africa-Florisbad: Florisbad 1
Africanthropus Dryer, 1935  | Status: Potentially valid
Homo florisbadensis Drennan, 1935  | Status: Invalid
Homo (Africanthropus) helmei Dreyer, 1935  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Hadar: A.L. 266-1
Africa-Hadar: A.L. 288-1
Homo antiquus Ferguson, 1984  | Status: Invalid
Afaranthropus Bonde, 2012  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Kabwe: E686
Homo rhodesiensis Woodward, 1921  | Status: Potentially valid
Cyphanthropus Pycraft, 1928  | Status: Potentially valid
Homo primigenius africanus Weidenreich, 1928  | Status: Invalid
Africa-Kanam: Kanam
Homo kanamensis Leakey, 1935  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Kanapoi: KNM-KP 29281
Australopithecus anamensis Leakey et al., 1995  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Kanjera: Kanjera - No Type Fixed
Africa-Kanjera: Kanjera - No Type Fixed
Homo leakeyi Paterson, 1940  | Status: Unavailable
Africa-Kapsomin: BAR 1000'00
Orrorin Senut et al., 2001  | Status: Potentially valid
Orrorin tugenensis Senut et al., 2001  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Koro Toro: KT 12/H1
Africa-Koro Toro: KT Yayo
Tchadensis uxoris Coppens, 1965  | Status: Unavailable
Africa-Kromdrai: TM 1517
Paranthropus Broom, 1938  | Status: Potentially valid
Paranthropus robustus Broom, 1938  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Laetoli: Laetoli - No Type Fixed
Africa-Laetoli: Laetoli - No Type Fixed
Praeanthropus Hennig, 1948  | Status: Unavailable
Australopithecus africanus tanzaniensis Tobias, 1979  | Status: Unavailable
Africa-Laetoli: Garusi I
Meganthropus africanus Weinert, 1950  | Status: Suppressed
Praeanthropus Senyürek 1955  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Laetoli: L.H. 4
Africa-Lomekwi: KNM-WT 40000
Kenyanthropus Leakey et al., 2001  | Status: Potentially valid
Kenyanthropus platyops Leakey et al., 2001  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Lothagam: KNM-LT 329
lothagamensis Bonde & Westergaard, 2004  | Status: Unavailable
Africa-Makapansgat: MLD 1
Australopithecus prometheus Dart, 1948  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Malapa: MH1
Australopithecus sediba Berger et al., 2010  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Middle Awash: BOU-VP-12/130
Australopithecus garhi Asfaw et al., 1999  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Middle Awash: ALA-VP-2/10
Ardipithecus kadabba Haile-Selassie, 2004  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Middle Awash: ARA-VP-6/1
Australopithecus ramidus White, Suwa & Asfaw, 1994  | Status: Potentially valid
Ardipithecus White, Suwa & Asfaw, 1995  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Middle Awash - Bodo D'Ar: Bodo 1
Homo bodoensis Roksandic et al., 2022  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Middle Awash - Bouri: BOU-VP-16/1
Homo sapiens idaltu White et al., 2003  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Olduvai Gorge: OH 7
Homo habilis Leakey, Tobias & Napier, 1964  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Olduvai Gorge: OH 5
Zinjanthropus Leakey, 1959  | Status: Potentially valid
Zinjanthropus boisei Leakey, 1959  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Olduvai Gorge: OH 9
Homo leakeyi Heberer, 1963  | Status: Unavailable
Homo erectus olduvaiensis Tobias, 1968  | Status: Unavailable
Homo louisleakeyi Kretzoi, 1984  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Omo Shungura: OMO 18-1967-18
Africa-Sterkfontein: STW 53
Homo gautengensis Curnoe, 2010  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Sterkfontein: TM 1511
Australopithecus transvaalensis Broom, 1936  | Status: Potentially valid
Plesianthropus Broom, 1938  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Swartkrans: SK 6
Paranthropus crassidens Broom, 1949  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Swartkrans: SK 15
Telanthropus Broom and Robinson 1949  | Status: Potentially valid
Telanthropus capensis Broom and Robinson, 1949  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Taung: Taung 1
Australopithecus Dart, 1925  | Status: Potentially valid
Australopithecus africanus Dart, 1925  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Tighennif: Tighennif 1
Africa-Toros-Menalla: TM 266-01-060-1
Sahelanthropus Brunet et al., 2002  | Status: Potentially valid
Sahelanthropus tchadensis Brunet et al., 2002  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Tugen Hills: KNM-TH 13150
Homo antiquus praegens Ferguson, 1989  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-West Turkana: KNM-WT 17000
Australopithecus walkeri Ferguson, 1989  | Status: Potentially valid
Africa-Woranso-Mille: BRT-VP-3/1
Asia-Callao Cave: CCH6
Homo luzonensis Détroit et al., 2019  | Status: Potentially valid
Asia-Dali: Dali
Homo sapiens daliensis Wu, 1981  | Status: Potentially valid
Asia-Denisova Cave: Denisova 4
Homo sapiens altaiensis Derevianko, 2011  | Status: Unavailable
Asia-Dmanisi: D 2600
Homo georgicus Gabounia et al., 2002  | Status: Potentially valid
Asia-Harbin: HBSM2018-000018(A)
Homo longi Ji and Ni, 2021  | Status: Potentially valid
Asia-Hong Kong: CA 673
Hemanthropus von Koenigswald, 1957  | Status: Potentially valid
Hemianthropus von Koenigswald, 1957  | Status: Unavailable
Hemianthropus peii von Koenigswald, 1957  | Status: Potentially valid
Asia-Hong Kong: CA 770
Sinanthropus officinalis von Koenigswald, 1952  | Status: Potentially valid
Asia-Kiik-Koba: Kiik-Koba 1
Homo kiik-kobensis Bontch-Osmolovskii, 1941  | Status: Potentially valid
Asia-Lantian: PA 102, Lantian 1
Sinanthropus lantianensis Woo, 1965  | Status: Potentially valid
Asia-Liang Bua: LB1
Homo floresiensis Brown et al., 2004  | Status: Potentially valid
Asia-Longgupo: CV.939.1
Homo erectus wushanensis Huang et al., 1991  | Status: Potentially valid
Asia-Longtan Cave, Hexian: Hexian
Homo erectus hexianensis Huang, 1982  | Status: Potentially valid
Asia-Maba: Maba 1
Homo erectus mapaensis Kurth, 1965  | Status: Unavailable
Asia-Mojokerto: Mojokerto 1
Homo modjokertensis von Koenigswald, 1936  | Status: Potentially valid
Asia-Mugharet el-Zuttiyeh: Zuttiyeh 1
Homo galilensis Joleaud, 1931  | Status: Unavailable
Homo primigenius galilaeensis Hennig, 1932  | Status: Unavailable
Asia-Narmada Valley: Narmada
Asia-Narmada Valley: Narmada
Homo erectus narmadensis Sonakia, 1984  | Status: Potentially valid
Asia-Ngandong: Ngandong 1
Homo (Javanthropus) soloensis Oppenoorth, 1932  | Status: Potentially valid
Homo primigenius asiaticus Weidenreich, 1932  | Status: Invalid
Javanthropus Oppenoorth, 1932  | Status: Potentially valid
Homo erectus ngandongensis Sartono, 1976  | Status: Potentially valid
Asia-Nishiyagi: Nishiyagi 1
Nipponanthropus Hasebe, 1948  | Status: Potentially valid
Nipponanthropus akashiensis Hasebe, 1948  | Status: Potentially valid
Asia-Penghu Channel: F051911
Homo tsaichangensis McMenamin  | Status: Unavailable
Asia-Sambungmacan: Sm 3
Asia-Sambungmacan: Sm 3
Asia-Sangiran: Sangiran 6
Asia-Sangiran: Sangiran 4
Pithecanthropus robustus Weidenreich, 1944  | Status: Potentially valid
Asia-Sangiran: Sangiran 5
Pithecanthropus dubius von Koenigswald, 1949  | Status: Potentially valid
Asia-Sangiran: Sangiran 5
Asia-Sangiran: Sangiran 5
Asia-Shangnabang: Youanmou
Asia-Shanidar Cave: Shanidar 7
Homo sapiens shanidarensis Senyurek, 1957  | Status: Potentially valid
Asia-Skhul: Skhul 1
Asia-Sunghir: Sunghir 2
Homo sungirensis Zubova, 2000  | Status: Potentially valid
Asia-Tabun: Tabun - No Type Fixed
Protanthropus tabunensis Bonarelli, 1944  | Status: Unavailable
Asia-Trinil: Trinil - No Type Fixed
Pithecanthropus alalus Haeckel, 1895  | Status: Unavailable
Asia-Trinil: Trinil 2
Anthropopithecus erectus Dubois, 1892  | Status: Potentially valid
Pithecanthropus Dubois, 1894  | Status: Potentially valid
Homo javanensis primigenius Houze, 1896  | Status: Invalid
Homo pithecanthropus Manouvrier, 1896  | Status: Invalid
Hylobates giganteus Bumuller, 1899  | Status: Invalid
Proanthropus Wilser, 1900  | Status: Invalid
Pithecanthropus duboisii Morselli, 1901  | Status: Invalid
Hylobates gigas Krause, 1909  | Status: Invalid
Homo trinilis Alsberg, 1922  | Status: Invalid
Praehomo asiaticus javanensis Eickstedt, 1932  | Status: Invalid
Homo erectus trinilensis Sartono, 1976  | Status: Unavailable
Asia-Wajak: Wajak 1
Asia-Wajak: Wajak 1
Homo wadjakensis Dubois, 1921  | Status: Potentially valid
Asia-Zhoukoudian: Zhoukoudian - No Type Fixed
Asia-Zhoukoudian: K11337:3
Sinanthropus Black and Zdansky  | Status: Potentially valid
Sinanthropus pekinensis Black and Zdansky, 1927  | Status: Potentially valid
Pithecanthropus sinensis Weinert, 1931  | Status: Invalid
Praehomo asiaticus sinensis Eickstedt, 1932  | Status: Invalid
Asia-Zhoukoudian: Zhoukoudian - No Type Fixed
Europe-Atapuerca - Gran Dolina: ATD 6-5
Homo antecessor Bermúdez de Castro et al., 1997  | Status: Potentially valid
Europe-Bonn-Oberkassel: Bonn-Oberkassel 2 - D 999
Europe-Bonn-Oberkassel: Bonn-Oberkassel 1 - D 998
Europe-Campogrande: 944/1 - Ceprano 1
Homo cepranensis Mallegni et al., 2003  | Status: Potentially valid
Europe-Chancelade: Chancelade
Homo priscus Lapouge, 1899  | Status: Potentially valid
Europe-Cotte de St. Brelade: Jersey 1
Homo breladensis Marett, 1911  | Status: Potentially valid
Europe-Cro-Magnon: Cro-Magnon
Homo spelaeus Lapouge, 1899  | Status: Potentially valid
Homo sapiens cro-magnonensis Gregory, 1921  | Status: Invalid
Homo larterti Pycraft, 1925  | Status: Potentially valid
Europe-Ehringsdorf: Ehringsdorf F
Homo heringsdorfensis Moller, 1928  | Status: Unavailable
Europe-Gibraltar - Forbes Quarry: Gibraltar 1
Homo calpicus Keith, 1911  | Status: Potentially valid
Homo gibraltarensis Battaglia, 1924  | Status: Invalid
Europe-Grimaldi (Baoussé-Roussé) - Cave 1: Grimaldi 1
Homo niger Wilser, 1903  | Status: Invalid
Homo grimaldii Lapouge, 1905  | Status: Potentially valid
Homo grimaldicus Hilber 1922  | Status: Unavailable
Europe-Hauslabjoch: Hauslabjoch 1
Homo tirolensis Ambach et al., 1992  | Status: Unavailable
Europe-Kleine Feldhofer Grotte: Neanderthal 1
Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864  | Status: Potentially valid
Protanthropus Haeckel, 1895  | Status: Unavailable
Protanthropus atavus Haeckel, 1895  | Status: Unavailable
Homo europaeus primigenius Wilser, 1898  | Status: Unavailable
Homo primigenius Schwalbe, 1904  | Status: Invalid
Homo (Protanthropus) Bonarelli, 1909  | Status: Potentially valid
Palaeanthropus europeus Sergi, 1910  | Status: Invalid
Archanthropus Arldt, 1915  | Status: Invalid
Anthropus Boyd-Dawkins, 1926  | Status: Invalid
Metanthropus Sollas, 1933  | Status: Unavailable
Europe-Krapina: Krapina 5
Europe-La Chapelle-aux-Saints: La Chapelle-aux-Saints
Homo chapellensis Buttel-Reepen, 1911  | Status: Potentially valid
Archanthropus Abel, 1920  | Status: Invalid
Archanthropus primigenius Abel, 1920  | Status: Invalid
Europe-Le Moustier: Le Moustier 1
Europe-Leuca - Grotta del Bambino: Leuca 1
Europe-Mauer: Mauer 1
Homo heidelbergensis Schoetensack, 1908  | Status: Potentially valid
Pseudhomo Ameghino, 1909  | Status: Invalid
Palaeanthropus Bonareli, 1909  | Status: Invalid
Protanthropus Arldt, 1915  | Status: Invalid
Praehomo Eikstedt, 1932  | Status: Invalid
Praehomo europaeus Eikstedt, 1932  | Status: Invalid
Anthropus Weinert, 1937  | Status: Invalid
Maueranthropus Montandon, 1943  | Status: Invalid
Europanthropus Wust, 1950  | Status: Invalid
Euranthropus Arambourg, 1955  | Status: Unavailable
Europe-Naulette: La Naulette
Homo naulettensis Baudouin, 1916  | Status: Potentially valid
Europe-Petralona: Petralona
Homo erectus petralonensis Murrill, 1981  | Status: Unavailable
Europe-Piltdown: E.594
Europe-Piltdown: Piltdown - E.591
Eoanthropus Woodward, 1913  | Status: Potentially valid
Eoanthropus dawsoni Woodward, 1913  | Status: Potentially valid
Europe-Predmosti: Predmost 21
Notanthropus eurafricanus archaicus Sergi, 1911  | Status: Potentially valid
Homo predmostensis Absolon, 1920  | Status: Invalid
Homo predmosti Matiegka, 1938  | Status: Invalid
Europe-Saccopastore: Saccopastore 1
Homo neanderthalensis var. aniensis Sergi, 1935  | Status: Potentially valid
Europe-Spy Cave: Spy I
Homo priscus Krause, 1909  | Status: Invalid
Homo spyensis Krause, 1909  | Status: Potentially valid
Europe-Steinheim: Steinheim
Homo murrensis Weinert, 1936  | Status: Unavailable
Homo steinheimensis Berckhemer, 1936  | Status: Potentially valid
Europe-Swanscombe: Swanscombe
Homo marstoni Paterson, 1940  | Status: Unavailable
Homo swanscombensis Kennard, 1942  | Status: Unavailable
Homo sapiens proto-sapiens Montandon, 1943  | Status: Potentially valid
Europe-Uppsala Cathedral: Linnaeus
Homo Linnaeus, 1758  | Status: Potentially valid
Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758  | Status: Potentially valid
Hominidae Gray 1825  | Status: Potentially valid
Hominini Gray 1825  | Status: Potentially valid
Hominoidea Gray, 1825  | Status: Potentially valid
Europe-Vertesszöllös: Vertesszöllös Homo II